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Cytology And Histology > Cytology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cytology Deck (26)
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1

What does anatomy mean?

Study of structure

2

What does physiology mean?

The study of how the body parts work.

3

What is pathology?

Study of abnormalities from normal function.

4

What are the 6 characteristics of life?

Metabolism, responsiveness, movement, reproduction, growth, differentiation.

5

What is homeostasis?

The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment maintained by the body's own regulatory process. Dynamic and ever changing but remaining in narrow limits.

6

What are some examples of negative feedback?

Increased blood pressure, temperature, pH

7

What is negative feedback?

The effector decreases the effect of the original stimulus restoring homeostasis

8

What is positive feedback?

The ability to amplify or increase the original stimulus.

9

What are some examples of positive feedback?

Childbirth, milk production, blood clotting, immunity, enzymes reactions.

10

What are the four main body cavities?

Cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

11

What is the cytosol?

Basic watery fluid of the cell.

12

What is the cytoplasm?

Cell content excluding nucleus. Include organelles and cytosol.

13

What is the function of the plasma membrane?

Ion channels to transport substance, carriers to transport larger substance, immunological identifier to help identify foreign cells or for blood groups, receptors for hormones.

14

What is the nucleolus for?

Produces RNA

15

What is a Histone?

DNA could around proteins, there are histones

16

What is the cytoskeletons?

Network of protein filaments that extends through the cytosol.

17

What is the cytoskeletons made up of and what is their function?

Microfilaments - generate movement and provide support at the edge of the cell
Microtubules - larger and assembled in centrosome (near nucleus and for cell division)

18

What are cristae?

Inner membrane with a series of folds inside the mitochondria creating a large surface area

19

What is the function of rough ER?

Has ribosomes on it for synthesising and transporting proteins.

20

What is smooth ER?

No ribosomes, synthesises lipids and steroid hormones

21

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

Modifies, sorts, packages and transports proteins from rough ER. Has flattened membraneous sacs called cisternae.

22

What are the cause of mutations?

Chance (spontaneous mutation) and induced by mutagenic agents

23

How is protein synthesised?

Transcription - DNA is copied into mRNA, this travel out of nucleus to rough ER
Translation - ribosomes read mRNA and it is converted into a chain of amino acids forming protein.

24

What factors affect diffusion rate?

Steepness of gradient, temperature, mass and SA

25

What is endocytosis?

Particles engulfed and enclosed by extensions from the membrane and cytoplasm.

26

What is exocytosis?

Removal of waste out of the cell