D3 Exam Questions Flashcards Preview

CIPS Diploma > D3 Exam Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in D3 Exam Questions Deck (107)
Loading flashcards...
1

1

Supplier 3 is described as a small firm or enterprise.
(a) Explain THREE advantages that BS might obtain by sourcing the mountain bikes from a small firm such as Supplier 3.
 

(10 marks)

January 2014

View Exam Moderator answers

p.65  2.6

  • Access to a wider/inclusive market that is not merely confined to large suppliers
  • Potentially lower prices due to lower overheads associated with smaller organisations;
  • Shorter decision making channels due to absence of bureaucracy;
  • Greater flexibility and responsiveness especially in small order situations;
  • Greater commitment as BS is likely to be a core customer; 
  • Small suppliers are usually local (as Supplier 3 is) with shorter supply chain advantages in transport/logistics and communication; etc.

 

2

1

Supplier 3 is described as a small firm or enterprise.

(b) Explain TWO disadvantages that BS might encounter by sourcing the mountain bikes from a small firm such as Supplier 3.

(10 marks)

January 2014

View Exam Moderator answers

p.65   2.5

  • Lack of expertise to understand or interpret complex requirements
  • Lack of capacity for larger order volume contracts where the trend is toward aggregate of demand into fewer larger contracts, the use of framework agreements and a reduced supplier base
  • Financial instability which might compromise supplier performance or debase the contractual terms on payment (chasing early payment), quality(cutting corners), lead times (stock outs), etc;
  • Lack of economies of scale hence higher costs/prices;
  • Perceptions and attitudes that are averse to structured business approach employed by the company –e.g. tendering processes, credit terms, etc; 
  • Lack of expertise, time or resources for marketing, research and development to ensure future supply continuity

3

1

a)   Explain the term ‘sourcing’.

(4 marks)

March 2014

View Exam Moderator answers

p.2   1.3

It is a pre-contract procurement process that is concerned with ‘how and where the products or services are obtained’; the process of identifying, selecting and developing suppliers; etc.

It can be carried out at 2 basic levels: (a) tactical and (b) strategic

Tactical sourcing would be:

  • Lower level decisions relating to low profit, low risk and routine items.  
  • Also includes short-range decisions as to how specific supply requirements will be met in response to changing or temporary conditions in the organisation or supply market
  • Clearly defined requirements and specifications and transactional sourcing decisions based mainly on open bidding and purchase prices.

Strategic sourcing processes are concerned with:

  • Top level, longer terms decisions relating to items with high profit and high supply risk
  • The formulation of long range decisions about procurement policies, the supplier base, supply chain relationships, the purchase of capital equipment and ethical sustainability issues
  • Developing a deep understanding of requirements (eg using value analysis) and of the supply market and individual supplier drivers and capabilities

 

4

1

b)   Describe FOUR stages of the sourcing process that might be used by LOCOG.

(4 marks)

March 2014

View Exam Moderator answers

p.3.   2.1

  • Identification of the requirement or need – the specification, the quantities, whether a new requirement or a rebuy/replenishment, etc.; This may take the form of a purchase requisition from a department or a stock replenishment from inventory control or a requirement definition due to ESI or EBI involvement in the design process. Could also be due to re-evaluation of needs and the definition of requirements in product and service specifications
  • A sourcing plan – This would include make/do or buy decisions and a definition of the type of purchase ie new, re-buy or modified re-buy.  The buying team would refer to the existing sourcing policy or determine the sourcing strategy or methodology to apply - e.g. single or multiple sourcing; whether to use competitive tendering or direct negotiation; whether to source locally or internationally; establishing the award criteria, contractual requirements and processes; etc. 
  • Market analysis- this would involve analysing demand and market patterns; identifying new potential suppliers; general risk assessment by evaluating the business environmental factors.
  • The identification and/or pre-qualification of suppliers – using available sources of data on supply sources (existing and potential suppliers); applying key criteria (technical, financial, commercial, etc) to pre-screen and determine suitable suppliers who meet LOCOG’s standards; engage the identified supplier using appropriate tools such as PQQ or RFI, RFQ or ITT, depending on the sourcing process or methodology adopted. Some answers divided this stage into two – identification and pre-qualification – and marks were earned appropriate to the depth of detail presented.
  • Evaluating supply offers /options – depending on the methodology adapted, LOCOG would receive (from pre-qualified suppliers) quotations or tenders/bids for evaluation against the established criteria and /or enter into negotiations with one or more of the suppliers. The ‘winning’ supplier would be the one offering the best value solution to the requirement – candidates with public sector background seemed to favour the term ‘MEAT’ (Most Economically Advantageous Tender).
  • Creating contractual relationship – this would be the final stage of the process when all clarifications have been made a purchase order/contract/framework agreement or other method of legal relationship is formulated and adopted by both parties.

5

1

(b) Discuss whether competitive tendering would be an appropriate method of awarding the contract to one of the international suppliers of liquid monomer

(8 marks)

Jan 2015

View Exam Paper with Case Study

Similar question 15/01, 18/11

page 32 table 2.2

Competitive tendering might achieve the lowest price for the company however, this method is subject to such conditions as:

  • The value of the procurement should be high enough to justify the expense of the tendering process
  • The specifications must be clear and potential suppliers must have a clear idea of the costs involved in fulfilling the contract
  • There must be sufficient suppliers in the market to ensure that there is competition
  • The potential suppliers must be both technically qualified and keen to win the business
  • There must be sufficient time available for the competitive tendering process to be carried out

 

Competitive tendering is not a suitable method in situations where:

  • It is impossible to estimate production costs accurately
  • Price is not the only or most important criterion in the award of hte contract
  • Changes to the specification are likely as the contract progresses 
  • Special tooling or set up costs are major factors in the requirement

6

1

(a) Explain FOUR objectives that Vasseem should aim to achieve, if he decides to negotiate directly with the two international suppliers of liquid monomer.

 

(12  marks)

Jan 2015

View Exam Paper with Case Study

page 31   2.10

  • Obtain a fair and reasonable (or advantageous) price for the quantity of goods specified
  • To get the supplier to perform the contract on time
  • To exert some control over the manner in which the contract is performed
  • To persuade the supplier to give maximum co-operation to the buyer's company
  • To develop a sound and continuing relationship with competent suppliers

7

The case study states that Francois believes that the Ministry should have developed a collaborative partnership approach to sourcing with the three suppliers of the IT equipment.

Outline FIVE benefits for the Ministry of developing this type of approach.

(20 marks)

March 2015

View Exam Paper with Case Study

p. 29 table 2.1

  • Greater stability of supply and supply prices
  • Sharing of risk and investment
  • Better supplier motivation and responsiveness, arising from mutual commitment and reciprocity
  • Cost savings from reduced supplier base, collaborative cost reduction
  • Access to supplier's technology and expertise
  • Joint planning and information sharing, sharing supporting capacity planning and efficiency
  • Ability to plan long-term improvements
  • More attention to relationship management eg access to an account manager

8

1

A report entitled 'Review of Efficiency in the Schools System' published in 2013 found that too many schools continue to purchase products and services individually.

Describe THREE advantages and TWO disadvantages of schools adopting a consortium or group buying approach to sourcing their requirements from suppliers.

(20 marks)

May 2015

View Exam Paper with Case Study

p.42   4.26

ADVANTAGES

  • By means of enhanced bargaining power, the consortium can obtain discounts that would not be available to individual members - although there may be difficulties in allocating such discounts fairly among them
  • A consortium can establish framework agreements, simplifying purchase administration for members. This can lead to significant reductions in transaction and contracting costs, especially in the case of low-value items where the admin cost is disproportionate to the purchase price of the items.
  • Consortium members can pool expertise, knowledge and contacts, where these would be beneficial for particular procurement categories or exercises

p.42   4.27

DISADVANTAGES

  • There are costs and effort associated with communication and coordination, staff development and policy development
  • There is an issue of transparency between consortium members. Buyers need full information about plans, processes, designs and costs in order to make informed procurement decisions: this may expose some members of a consortium to commercial or intellectual property risk
  • Consortia may suffer from lengthy negotiation and decision processes, which are inefficient and may deter some suppliers from dealing with the consortium
  • Members are not obliged to purchase to the agreed specification
  • Very large consortia may fall foul of laws and regulations designed to prevent dominant marker players from abusing their dominant market position (eg by dictating pricing)

9

1

Discuss FOUR criteria that GFATM might apply when awarding the contracts to suppliers.

(20 marks)

July 2015

View Exam Paper with Case Study

p.57

  1. Ability to conform to specification
  2. Reasons for disqualification
  3. Lowest Price
  4. Best value or 'most economically advantageous tender' (MEAT)
  5. Best value and total lifecycle cost

10

1

b ESA has three prime contractors, Airbus, Thales Alenia Space and OHB. Below these first tier suppliers are lower tier suppliers, who are specialists in engines and flight systems.

Outline THREE benefits for ESA’s procurement function of adopting a supplier tiering approach to sourcing. (12 marks)

Jan 2016

View Exam Moderator answers

p.74   4.14

  • There will be fewer commercial relationships to source and manage and develop instead of having to deal with a large number of suppliers.
  • To maintain quality, service and minimise business and reputational risk. However, ESA’s procurement should 'drill down' through the tiers - appraising and monitoring policies, systems and performance – thus ensuring sound management of the entire supply chain.
  • ESA may influence first tier suppliers to adopt some of its own suppliers as subcontractors or lower tier suppliers. This will ensure continuity of its own business relationships established in previous contracts where such suppliers demonstrated excellence.
  • ESA's procurement function will have fewer tasks and have time to pursue a more strategic focus on issues like sustainable sourcing, global sourcing, relationship development, etc.
  • Collaborative partnership with tier 1 suppliers will enable ESA to benefit from their expertise and innovation which is important in ESA’s kind of enterprise
  • It may lead to variety reduction and standardisation of parts and components. This will result in cost savings in handling and storage.

11

1

a)   Explain the term ‘supplier tiering’ in the context of the case study.

(8 marks)

Jan 2016

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 73 4.8

Additional definition source

Tiering suppliers is a form of supply base management in which suppliers are organised such that only first tier suppliers deal directly with the buying organisation.  Second tier suppliers will participate in the same supply chain, but will supply first tier suppliers who will assemble or integrate before supplying the buying organisation.  The practice originated in the automotive industry and allowed car assemblers to reduce their first tier supply base to below 1000 suppliers.  The practice allows the development of differentiated supply relationships with a smaller community of suppliers.  Management contracting is a similar practice in the building and construction sector.

In terms of the case study, ESA is a big organisation with a large number of suppliers. It prefers to deal directly with only a small number of these suppliers, these are first tier suppliers. These tier 1 suppliers are given the responsibility of dealing with and managing the other suppliers, the second tier suppliers.

ESA may have a supply chain with thousands of different suppliers in many different countries. Rather than dealing directly with all of these, it might reduce its vendor base to a few hundred first tier suppliers, who in turn will deal with and manage a second tier and potentially third tier or further tiers of suppliers along the supply chain.

12

1

(a) Describe FIVE sources of information that could be used by WEL’s procurement team for the appraisal of potential suppliers

(10 marks)

Nov 2016

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 7   3.2

  1. The buyer's own database of existing and past suppliers, including records of their offerings, performance evaluations and so on.  This can be supplement by the buyer's lists of preferred, approved or authorised suppliers, indicating which suppliers have been pre-qualified for use
  2. Formal requests for information (RFI), often using pre-prepared questionnaires sent to suppliers who might be of interest
  3. The marketing communications of potential suppliers: advertising, direct mail, brochures and catalogues, visits from sales reps, websites, etc.
  4. Internet search for websites including business directories and listings, searchable databases designed to promoted exports and specialist purchasing resources
  5. Online market exchanges, auction sites and supplier/buyer forums, which may also allow the posting of requests for quotation and other exchanges
  6. Published listings of suppliers and stockists: general directories (eg Yellow Pages) and specialist trade/industry directories and registers
  7. Trade/Industry Press (newspapers, magazines, journals and bulletins) and specialist procurement journals (ie Supply Management or Procurement Professional)
  8. Trade fairs, Exhibitions and conferences

13

1

The case states that WEL’s procurement manager is considering the possibility of entering into partnerships with selected suppliers in order to gain greater benefits.

(i) Outline THREE advantages of supplier partnering from the buyer’s viewpoint.

 

(5 marks)

Nov 2016

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 29 table 2.1

  • Greater stability of supply and supply prices
  • Sharing of risk and investment
  • Better supplier motivation and responsiveness, arising from mutual commitment and reciprocity
  • Cost savings from reduced supplier base, collaborative cost reduction
  • Access to supplier's technology and expertise
  • Joint planning and information sharing, sharing supporting capacity planning and efficiency
  • Ability to plan long-term improvements
  • More attention to relationship management eg access to an account manager

14

1

The case states that WEL’s procurement manager is considering the possibility of entering into partnerships with selected suppliers in order to gain greater benefits.

(ii) Outline TWO disadvantages of supplier partnering from the buyer’s viewpoint.

(5 marks)

Nov 2016

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 29  table 2.1

  1. Risk of complacency re cost/quality
  2. Less flexibility to change suppliers at need
  3. Possible risk to confidentiality, intellectual property (eg if supplies also supply competitors)
  4. May be locked into relationship with an incompatible or inflexible supplier
  5. Restricted in EU Public Sector Procurement Directives
  6. May be locked into relationship, despite supply market changes and opportunities
  7. Costs of relationship management
  8. Mutual dependency may create loss of flexibility and control

15

1

 (a) Explain how EML could use the elements of a procurement positioning matrix, such as the Kraljic matrix, to assist its sourcing process. (12 marks)

Jan 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 5  2.11

Kraljic identifies four types of requirements/items based on value (importance) and supply risk (complexity) effects on the procurement strategy of an organisation as follows:

Non-critical or routine items: are low value/low risk e.g. stationery, which should be processed via low- maintenance sourcing routines such as vendor-managed inventory, blanket ordering and e-procurement.

Leverage items: are high value /low risk where EML should use its buying power to secure best prices and terms by using standardisation, competitive bidding and multi-sourcing/supplier switching.
Bottleneck items: the priority for these high risk/low value items is supply security which is achievable via negotiation, long term contracts, multi-sourcing (back-up contracts), incentives/penalties; and safety stock.
Strategic items: such as major pieces of machinery are high value/high risk. EML should pursue long term collaborative partnership - mutual dependency and investment, total cost focus, etc. The sourcing process
will need to be rigorous to develop and maintain the ‘right’ supply chain partners.

16

1

 (b) Suggest FOUR examples of information about existing suppliers that might be found on the EML supplier database and used as part of EML’s supplier pre-qualification process.

(8 marks)

Jan 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.8  table 1.1

Pieces of information about existing suppliers might include the following:

  • Contact details – this would show whether the supplier was international or domestic
  • Terms and conditions of trade including prices and preferred currency
  • Approved or preferred status of the supplier
  • Average value and frequency of spend with each supplier
  • Special capabilities (e.g. late customisation capability) suggesting selection when special needs arise
  • Results of supplier appraisals, audits and ratings
  • Vendor performance history (quality, lead times, delivery, compliance, etc.)
  • Current systems such as framework agreements and/or call-off contracts in place
  • Financial stability of the supplier

17

1

  (b) Describe THREE possible ways in which Steven might involve NEPC’s stakeholders in the sourcing process. (12 marks)

March 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 9  3.13

  • Early buyer involvement (EBI) - buyers are important in providing commercial input to bring the overall success in the product development and supply sustainability.
  • A formal committee or a team approach –the preparation of a specification involves reconciliation of conflicting objectives. A committee/team (cross-functional/multi-skilled) is formed comprising members from each stakeholder group –e.g. design, quality, procurement, etc.
  • Informal approach –encourage stakeholders to consider both commercial and technical factors affecting their activities; buyers should to challenge the assumptions of users and to suggest alternative methods or solutions; designers and users should seek advice and input before going too far with their initiatives.
  • A purchasing co-ordinator approach –this is a formalisation of the informal approach, with procurement staff appointed as 'liaison officers' to co-ordinate the required communication.
  • An early supplier involvement (ESI) -suppliers are involved at an early stage in the product or service development –thus taking advantage of their technical expertise to improve on the design and costs. – suppliers have tremendous expertise in connection with operational methods, EOQs, substitutes, lead times, packaging, supply sustainability, etc. As Steven lacks public sector experience he will greatly benefit from involving suppliers early in his plans.
  • Other appropriate ways - e.g. consultation, focus groups and surveys.

18

1

 (a) Briefly describe FOUR stakeholders that Steven might engage with, as part of NEPC’s sourcing process. (8 marks)

March 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 9  3.12

 

a) Stakeholders in NEPC that Steven might engage with as part of the sourcing process might include:

  • Users of the items being sourced – e.g. consultants, doctors and nurses, who have a clear understanding of the desired functionality of the required items.
  • Finance department, to advise on budgetary concerns especially in capex situations where specialist investment appraisal techniques are required.
  • Design function members will be important in contributing to the preparation of the product or service specification
  • Suppliers, are likely to have the expertise to contribute to design and specification, sustainability plans and costs
  • The quality management team, which will be able to ensure that items being sourced are fit for purpose
  • Any other relevant internal or external stakeholders - e.g. the  management boards of the NHS Trusts themselves.

19

1

a)   Explain the nature of ‘strategic’ purchases and their likely impacts on CHL’s sourcing process. (10 marks)

May 2017

 

View Exam Moderator answers

p.3

a) ‘Strategic’ items are highly important and their supply market is characterised by scarcity and high complexity. The items are usually of high value and used over a long time.

The impact of such items on the sourcing process might include:

  • The likelihood of mutual dependency and investment between the company and the supplier.
  • The focus should be on total cost, supply security and competitiveness.
  • The need to develop long-term, trust-based, mutually beneficial relationships.
  • A rigorous sourcing process involving top management and the wider stakeholder interest in order to ensure sustainable long-term relationships.

The sourcing process will be rigorous – with stakeholder
involvement, wide market research including international sources, supplier prequalification, etc. – to find a supplier who can satisfy CHL’s need for installation, service and maintenance.

Include some procurement positioning concepts such as Kraljic matrix,

20

1

b)   Explain the term ‘supplier pre-qualification’ and how it might assist CHL’s sourcing process.

May 2017

 

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 11 4.2

Supplier pre-qualification’ is the definition and assessment of criteria for supplier suitability.

  • The development of objective evaluation criteria by which suppliers’ suitability will be appraised.
  • The screening of potential suppliers against the defined criteria via a PQQ, RFI, etc.
  • Pre-qualification may assist sourcing process by saving time and effort or cost as follows:
    • Only suppliers meeting the minimum standard/criteria are invited to participate in a sourcing process.
    • It facilitates the preparation of an approved supplier list.
    • It will be suitable for a specialised type of requirement being considered by CHL.
    • It is carried out to pre-screen suppliers to receive an invitation to tender or to quote for a contract.
    • It will help to embed qualitative selection criteria in the supplier selection process.

21

Q1 The case study information states that ZSL’s new approach to sourcing is to use several suppliers, or multiple sourcing.

 (b) Describe TWO disadvantages to ZSL of a multiple sourcing approach, compared to single sourcing. (8 marks)

 

July 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

p.26   1.7

  • They can lead to unnecessarily high procurement costs.  A large supplier base means more small orders and higher transaction and admin costs: giving large orders to fewer suppliers, on the other hand, would secure volume discounts and other savings( eg through systems integration with key suppliers)
  • They fail to exploit the value adding and competitive potential of concentrating on more collaborative relationships with fewer suppliers (eg continuous improvement over time, co-investment in innovation and quality, better communication and integration and so on)
  • They can lead to waste, by retaining suppliers who cannot ( or can no longer) meet the firms' requirements, or are otherwise not often used - and perhaps by increasing stock variety and proliferation, where different suppliers have slightly different products (so that ordering from multiple suppliers works against standardisation, variety reduction and inventory reduction)

22

1

The case study information states that ZSL’s new approach to sourcing is to use several suppliers, or multiple sourcing.
 (a) Describe THREE advantages to ZSL of a multiple sourcing approach, compared to single sourcing. (12 marks)

Jul 2017

View Exam Paper with Case Study

p.26

  • If there is a supply shortage or disruption (because of political unrest or bad weather in one supplier's area) or unforeseen peaks in demand (creating a need for extra supply), or a supplier failure, the organisation has established relationships with a wide range of approved alternative suppliers
  • As circumstances change - for both buyer and supplier - suppliers may become more or less compatible with the buying organisation, and mor or less competitive in terms of their offering.  Increasing the rage of pre-qualified potential suppliers enables the buyer to be more opportunistic: taking advantage of the best available price, trading terms, quality, innovation and flexibility on offer at any given time.
  • It is likely to keep the supplier base competitive, as each supplier knows that it is competing for contracts with a number of other sources of supply.

23

1

(a) Explain with the aid of a suitable diagram the term ‘supplier tiering’.

(5 marks)

 

November 2017, Jan 2016

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.73

24

1

(b) Explain THREE possible consequences for PBL if it decides to ‘tier’ its supply chain.

(15 marks)

November 2017

(Similar questions Jan 2016)

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.74   4.14

  • There will be fewer commercial relationships to source and manage and develop instead of having to deal with a large number of suppliers.
  • To maintain quality, service and minimise business and reputational risk. However, the procurement team should 'drill down' through the tiers - appraising and monitoring policies, systems and performance – thus ensuring sound management of the entire supply chain.
  • The company may influence first tier suppliers to adopt some of its own suppliers as subcontractors or lower tier suppliers. This will ensure continuity of its own business relationships established in previous contracts where such suppliers demonstrated excellence.
  • The procurement function will have fewer tasks and have time to pursue a more strategic focus on issues like sustainable sourcing, global sourcing, relationship development, etc.
  • Collaborative partnership with tier 1 suppliers will enable the company to benefit from their expertise and innovation which is important in the company's kind of enterprise
  • It may lead to variety reduction and standardisation of parts and components. This will result in cost savings in handling and storage.

25

  1

(a) Describe FOUR potential benefits for Naturally Me when sourcing from small businesses rather than larger suppliers.

(12 marks)

Jan 2018, Jan 2014

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p. 65   2.6

  • Access to a wider supply market, potentially enhancing competition (and therefore lower pricing through the market as a whole)
  • Competitive pricing due to lower administrative overheads and management costs
  • Greater responsiveness and flexibility (with shorter decision-making and approval channels)
  • Innovation capability and diversity of business solutions, through the early exploitation of new technology, providing products or services in new or underdeveloped markets, or using innovation capability to differentiate themselves from established market players.
  • Expertise in focused niche markets
  • Willingness and ability to produce small-order, niche, bespoke and customised items ( where larger suppliers may have minimum order quantities and standardised offerings)
  • Higher quality specialist products, due to greater skills, originality and commitment where the market is unattractive to larger enterprises)
  • Higher commitment and levels of services (due to the value of the business to the supplier)

26

1

(b) Explain how ethical issues may affect sourcing from Naturally Me’s suppliers. (8 marks)

Jan 2018

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.67 3.2

Ethical sourcing involves the application of moral principles within all stages of the sourcing process. Answers covered aspects at one or more of the following levels: -
• Macro level – might include issues under Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI) such as globalisation, labour exploitation, and industrialisation impact on the environment. These are key issues for Naturally Me to address and provide economic, social and environmental safeguards for its Sherabu oil supply chain.
• Corporate level – might include policies on stakeholder interaction, CSR, environment and sustainability, fair trading and labour standards in the supply chain.
• Individual level – might include adherence to a code of ethics in areas such as fairness, transparency, confidentiality, conflict of interest, etc., within the sourcing/tendering process.

p.68 3.3

 

  • The promotion of fair, open and transparent competition in sourcing (and the avoidance of unfair, fraudulent, manipulative or coercive sourcing practices)
  • The use of sourcing policies to promote positive socio-economic goals such as supplier diversity,  support for local and SME suppliers, and minimisation of transport miles (to reduce environmental impacts and carbon emissions)
  • The specification and sourcing of ethically produced inputs (eg certified as not tested on animals, drawn from sustainably managed or renewable sources; or manufactured under safe working conditions)
  • The selection and management of suppliers to promote ethical trading, environmental responsibility and labour standard at all tiers of the supply chain (eg by prequalifiying suppliers on CSR policies,  ethical codes, environmental management systems, reverse-logistics and recycling capabilities, and supply chain management; and incentivising, monitoring and developing supplier ethical performance)

27

1

The case study states that Grocery Grande had experienced a poor service from the recruitment agency EmployUS, which resulted in a negative effect on staff resources.  


 Explain FOUR areas that an organisation, such as Grocery Grande, might use to monitor the performance of its suppliers. (20 marks)

March 2018

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.19 table 1.3

 

Areas which an organisation might use to monitor supplier performance might include: -

  • Quality- e.g. the reject, error or wastage rates of goods delivered to its restaurants; the number of customer complaints received; adherence to quality standards, etc. In terms of recruitment services, the may assess the agency’s conformance to the vacancy specification, effective skills match of recruits, and compliance with the regulatory requirements
  • Delivery – e.g. the frequency of late, incorrect or incomplete deliveries; the percentage of on time in full (OTIF) deliveries; In terms of recruitments services they may assess the agency’s ability to provide shortlisted candidates by the specified date
  • Service and relationships – e.g. the competence and co-operation of the supplier's account manager, or promptness in dealing with queries and problems, adherence to after-sales service.
  • Financial stability - the supplier's ability to meet financial commitments and claims; to maintain quality and satisfy delivery expectations
  • Innovation capability – e.g. the number of innovations proposed or implemented; the level of investment in research and development
  • Technology - leverage and compatibility in terms of the number of electronic transactions; the supplier’s willingness to adapt to Grocery Grande’s technology and processes

28

1

 Crown Agents helps clients to adopt a strategic sourcing approach by providing advice on a range of subjects, including the measurement of supplier performance. 
Describe FIVE criteria that Crown Agents’ clients may use to monitor and measure the performance of their suppliers.  (20 marks)

May 2018, Mar 2018

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.19 table 1.3

The criteria that Crown Agents’ clients may use to monitor and measure supplier performance might include: -

  • Price: - this would include basic purchase price or whole life cost comparisons and percentage cost reductions. Emphasis on value for money is a key focus in public sector environments.
  • Quality/Compliance: - this might mean reject, error or wastage rates of goods delivered; the number of complaints received from end users; adherence to quality; etc. There could be a requirement for compliance with regulatory standards on environmental; CSR, etc. (e.g. emissions of the purchased vehicles).
  • Delivery: - might refer to the frequency of late, incorrect or incomplete deliveries; the percentage of on time in full (OTIF) deliveries; etc. considering the criticality of many of the items procured.
  • Service/relationships: - e.g. the competence and co-operation of the supplier's account manager; promptness in dealing with queries and problems; adherence to the terms of after-sales service.
  • Financial stability: - the supplier's ability to meet financial commitments and claims, to maintain quality and satisfy delivery requirements of Crown Agent’s clients.
  • Innovation capability: - the number of innovations proposed or implemented, and the level of investment in research and development (e.g. vehicles and laptops are subject to quick changes).
  • Technology leverage and compatibility: -e.g. the number of electronic transactions achieved; the supplier’s willingness to adapt to Crown Agents’ global systems; etc.
  • Other factors – e.g. prompt and accurate documentation/invoicing; good labour relations; etc.

29

1

  (a) Explain the nature of ‘strategic’ purchases and their likely impacts on Zingle’s sourcing process.
 (10 marks)

July 2018

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.3   1.8

  • They are important or core to the existence of the business as a brand and its ability compete in the market.
  • They are of a long term nature, i.e. not easily changed or substituted in the short term, as in in the case of Zingle’s orange flavouring purchases.
  • The market for these purchases is highly complex due to the limited number of global suppliers, thus requiring a clear understanding of the supply market capabilities and drivers.
  • They require long-range, high-level decision making processes, e.g. need for robust procurement policies in such areas as sustainability/ethics, the supplier base, supplier relationships, etc.
  • The sourcing process for strategic purchases would naturally focus on long term mutual dependency between Zingle and its suppliers, and therefore concerns for: -
  1. Rigorous sourcing processes to ensure strong long term relationships are developed. Some of the key factors to be considered would include total acquisition cost, security, sustainability and supply competitiveness.
  2. Long term contracts would need to be considered for such items with long-term nature, potential high risk and strategic impact (relevant aspects from Kraljic matrix may be discussed). Orange flavouring for example is a natural extract most likely subject to ‘commodity’ markets which are characterised by volatile supply.

 

Higher scores were given to candidates that demonstrated depth of theoretical understanding and application, e.g. by including relevant concepts from Kraljic Matrix.

30

1

  (b) Explain how the adoption of ‘supplier pre-qualification’ might assist Zingle’s sourcing process
 (10 marks)

July 2018

 

View Exam Paper with Case Study

View Exam Moderator answers

p.11

‘Pre-qualification’ is the screening of suppliers to identify their suitability based on predetermined criteria. The process could be carried out using a pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ) or request for information. The case study information states that Fruity Flavours meets Zingle's supplier criteria apart from its financial stability- perhaps confirmed by a prequalification process. Supplier prequalification
would assist Zingle in its sourcing process in the following ways: 
 Only suppliers with certain minimum standards of capability, capacity, sustainability and compatibility, etc. are invited or considered for participation in a sourcing process.
 It enables Zingle to prepare an approved list for suppliers that are already pre-screened prior to receiving any invitations to tender or RFQs. The case study information states that Zingle has not run a competitive tender process for orange flavouring for 15 years.
 Pre-qualification helps to embed qualitative selection criteria into the supplier selection process. However, this should not compromise fairness and economic sense in the final selection decision. Pre-qualification of alternative suppliers to Fruity Flavours could provide Zingle an opportunity for potential
supplier switching through a tendering.