D4 Sparkling: Franciacorta + Trentodoc Flashcards Preview

WSET® Level 4 D4 Sparkling Wine > D4 Sparkling: Franciacorta + Trentodoc > Flashcards

Flashcards in D4 Sparkling: Franciacorta + Trentodoc Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Italy’s largest producing region for Traditional Method sparkling wines is:

A

Franciacorta

2
Q

What are the principal grapes of Franciacorta?

Which one dominates plantings?

A
  • Chardonnay (75% of plantings)
  • Pinot Noir
  • Pinot Bianco (little being replanted)
3
Q

Franciacorta is located in which region in Italy?

A

Lombardy

4
Q

Still white and red wines made in the same area as Franciacorta are bottled under this DOC appellation.

A

Curtefranca DOC

5
Q

What geographic feature is on the northern boundary of Franciacorta?

A

Lake Iseo

6
Q

What effect does Lake Iseo have on Franciacorta?

A

Moderating effect on daily and seasonal temperatures, though spring frost can be an issue.

7
Q

What is the climate of Franciacorta?

A

Warm Continental

8
Q

What are some of the moderating influences on Franciacorta?

A
  • Cool downdrafts from the Alps;
  • Lake Iseo.

Franciacorta’s warm continental climate allows fruit to ripen consistently while these moderating influences help the fruit retain acidity.

9
Q

What are the soils of Franciacorta?

A

6 main soil types, so there’s a range in expression and complexity.

10
Q

Is there much vintage variation in Franciacorta?

A

Not a lot of vintage variation in Franciacorta due to grapes being picked early (late August) so they avoid autumn rain.

11
Q

What is Franciacorta’s ripening period compared to Trento?

A

Franciacorta’s ripening period is shorter than Trento.

12
Q

New vineyards being planted in Franciacorta must have what planting density?

A

4500 plants/ha

13
Q

In Franciacorta, what sort of training sytems are now prohibited?

What are the training systems that are now the standard?

A

Prohibited: heavy cropping training systems, such as pergola and Geneva Double Curtain.

Standard today: cordon training with spur pruning or head training with replacement-cane pruning (Guyot).

14
Q

Is Franciacorta mostly estates, co-ops, or small growers?

A

Mostly estates with estate-grown fruit

  • 75% of them are organic
15
Q

Is Franciacorta whole-bunch pressed or destemmed?

A

Whole-bunch pressed

  • ensures low phenolics
16
Q

What is the maximum yield limit in Franciacorta?

A

65hl/ha

17
Q

What vessels are typically used to make Franciacorta?

A
  1. Stainless steel most used - preserves primary fruit flavors;
  2. Old oak used for Riserva, Millesimato - adds complexity.
18
Q

Malolactic conversion in Franciacorta:

  • It’s always used.
  • It’s never used.
  • It varies by producer, vintage, and style.
A

It varies by producer, vintage, and style

19
Q

Franciacorta must be made using which method?

A

Traditional Method

20
Q

How common is it for Franciacorta producers to use reserve wines?

A

Large producers will most often use reserve wines, but smaller producers generally do not.

21
Q

Is Franciacorta mostly Non-vintage or Vintage?

A

It’s mostly Vintage but not labeled as such.

22
Q

Discuss the general style of Non-vintage Franciacorta:

  • What are the grapes?
  • How long sur lie?
  • Is it typically blends of vintages or from a single vintage?
A
  • Usually a blend of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir; can have up to 50% Pinot Bianco;
  • Minimum 18 months sur lie;
  • Typically fruit from a single vintage but not labeled as such.
23
Q

Discuss the general style of Franciacorta Satèn:

  • What are the grapes?
  • Minimum aging sur lie?
  • What is the only style in which it’s allowed to be produced?
  • What is specific about the pressure?
A
  • White grapes only; usually 100% Chardonnay;
  • Minimum 24 months sur lie;
  • Only made in Brut style;
  • Less sugar in tirage which yields pressure not more than 5 atmospheres.
24
Q

Discuss the general style of Franciacorta Rosé:

  • What is the minimum percentage of Pinot Noir?
  • How does it get its color?
  • Minimum aging sur lie?
A
  • Minimum 35% Pinot Noir (law since 2018);
  • Color from skin contact, though blending red wine is allowed;
  • Minimum 24 months sur lie.
25
Q

Discuss the general style of Franciacorta Millesimato:

  • If the vintage is declared, what is the minimum percent of fruit that must be from that year?
  • Minimum aging sur lie?
A
  • 85% from that vintage;
  • Minimum 30 months sur lie.
26
Q

If a Franciacorta Millesimato wine has spent a minimum of 60 months sur lie (instead of 30 months), what can it be called?

A

Franciacorta Riserva

27
Q

Since 2003, Franciacorta no longer has to put what on the label?

A

DOCG – producers can just put ‘Franciacorta’ on the label

28
Q

One-third of all Franciacorta produced is made by these 3 companies:

A
  1. Guido Berlucchi
  2. Ca’ del Bosco
  3. Bellavista
29
Q

What percent of Franciacorta production is exported?

A

10% exported

  • Japan, Switzerland, Germany, USA account for the majority of exports

90% stays in Italy

30
Q

What is the trademarked name for a bottle-fermented sparkling wine grown in Trento DOC using classic Champagne grape varieties?

A

Trentodoc (trademarked in 2007)

31
Q

What is the climate of Trentodoc?

What are some moderating factors?

A

Warm Continental with notable cooling influences

  • Warm summer temperatures since the Alps protect the area from cold winds;
  • Lake Garda helps moderate those high summer temps;
  • Significant diurnal shift due to cool air coming down from the Alps.
32
Q

Where are the grapes planted for Trentodoc wines?:

  • Valley floor
  • Slopes above the valley floor
  • Above the tree line
A

Slopes above the valley floor (400-700m asl)

  • this higher elevation means a longer growing season;
  • however, vineyards planted at the lowest elevations have higher risk of frost in the spring.
33
Q

What are the grapes permitted in Trentodoc?

A
  1. Chardonnnay
  2. Pinot Noir
  3. Pinot Bianco
  4. Meunier
34
Q

What is the general profile of Trentodoc?

A
  • Ripe yellow apple;
  • Autolytic;
  • Medium alcohol;
  • Medium+ to High acidity.
35
Q

What are the soils of Trentodoc?

A
  • Stony and well drained;
  • Soils become poorer on steeper slopes.
36
Q

Trentodoc’s harvest is typically:

  • before Franciacorta
  • after Franciacorta
A

AFTER Franciacorta (early Sept.)

  • mostly hand harvested
37
Q

What are the trellising systems used in Trentodoc?

A
  • Mostly Guyot;
  • Some Pergola on steep or terraced vineyards.
38
Q

What is the planting density of Trentodoc?

A

~4500-6000 plants/ha

39
Q

Where are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir planted in Trentodoc?

A

Chardonnay = cooler sites

Pinot Noir = warmer south/southeast facing slopes

40
Q

What are the main diseases of Trentodoc?

A
  • Powdery mildew;
  • Downy mildew;
  • Botrytis.
41
Q

How is the harvest date in Trentodoc determined?:

  • By the grapes’ color.
  • By the grapes’ acidity level.
  • The Trentodoc consorzio sets the harvest date.
A

Acidity level (they aim for 3.2 pH).

42
Q

What is the sparkling wine method used for Trentodoc?

A

Traditional Method

43
Q

Is malolactic conversion more common in Trentodoc or Franciacorta?

A

MLF is more common in Trentodoc due to its high acidity.

44
Q

What is the minimum aging sur lie for Trentodoc?

A

Minimum 15 months, but 20–30 months is common practice to enhace toasty notes.

45
Q

Trento Riserva – both white and Rosato – can be made only in these styles:

A
  1. Brut Nature
  2. Extra Brut
  3. Brut
46
Q

Vintage Trentodoc must spend a minimum of ___ months sur lie.

A

24 months

47
Q

Riserva Trentodoc must spend a minimum of ___ months sur lie.

A

36 months

  • however, 5–10 years is often seen
48
Q

Who is the largest and principal producer in Trentodoc?

A

Ferrari

49
Q

The styles that Trentodoc and Trento Rosato can be made in are:

A

All styles from Brut Nature to Dolce

50
Q

The two important sparkling wine brands of the two major co-ops in Trentodoc are:

A
  1. Rotari (for the Mezzocorona cooperative)
  2. Altemasi (for the Cavit cooperative)