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Flashcards in Dance Chapter Deck (38)
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1

Why was vocal music esteemed more in the Middle Ages and Renaissance?

Due to the lack of musical literacy in most instrumental musicians

2

How did vocal music being more esteemed affect the copying and or printing of instrumental music?

It was quite rare and only 50 instrumental dance tunes survive today

3

How did this affect the hierarchy of musicians?

Singers were considered much more important than instrumentalists

4

What four characteristics are found in the earliest examples of instrumental dance tunes and are still found in dance today?

Steady beat, Repetition, Clear meter, periodic phrasing

5

What is an estampie? What historical time period is it from?

The most common instrumental dance from the medieval time period

6

What are the ancestors of the piano, oboe, trombone, and bassoon?

psaltery, shawm, sackbut, dulcian

7

How was dance viewed in the Renaissance?

it was an important social skill

8

What is a common pair of dances from the Renaissance? Briefly describe each (tempo, meter, and dance steps)

Pavane and Gailliard : slow tempo, duple meter, feet close to the ground and vigorous tempos, triple meter, skipping steps

9

What is a suite?

A group of dance movements

10

List the four main dances found in a suite.

Allemande (germany), Courante (France), Sarabande (Central america), Gigue (England and Ireland)

11

Allemande

Duple Meter moderate tempo

12

Courante

triple meter; slow tempo

13

Sarabande

triple meter, slow tempo

14

Gigue

triple meter, fast tempo

15

What happens to German composers in the 18th Century?

they become prominent for the first time

16

What country was the most musically prominent at the time?

Italy

17

What is the form for dances in the Baroque? Include the tonal scheme.

Binary form. I-V, V-I. Two equal sections repeated.

18

How was Bach viewed during his lifetime?

He was locally known as a “servant” (someone who works in courts and churches).

19

Name four facts about Bach’s life that you find interesting.

1. Bach composed at the keyboard.
2. Duke of Weimar imprisoned Bach for a month before Bach went to Leipzig.
3. He trained students on instruments in Leipzig.
4. In Leipzig, he had to promise to lead an exemplary life and not to leave town without permission.

20

What is the Bach Revival and who is responsible for it?

The rediscovery of Bach’s music in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His music began to be published and performed in the early 19th century. Mendelssohn was responsible for the Bach Revival.

21

Compare the background, training, employment and role in society of Bach and a living composer.

Background: Living composers have diverse backgrounds. Bach came from a family of composers.
Training: Living composers are conservatory trained. Bach was trained by his father and brother.
Employment: Living composers are employed by schools (teaching). Bach was employed by churches and courts.
Role in society: Living composers are respected artists. Bach was known as a servant, because he worked for churches and courts.

22

What is a BWV? What is a Hoboken? Explain.

BWV: Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue), numbering system identifying Bach’s compositions. Works are grouped thematically, not chronologically.
Hoboken: Hoboken-Verzeichnis is a catalogue of over 750 works by Haydn as compiled by Anthony van Hoboken. Also grouped thematically.

23

What happens to the Minuet in the Classical period?

It becomes the third movement of symphonies, most popular dance.

24

In what country does ballet originate and when?

Northern Italy, 1500s.

25

In what country does ballet develop? When and why?

France, 1600s because Louis XIV finances the development.

26

Why is Jean Baptiste Lully important in the history of ballet? Include two facts about his life that you find interesting.

He was the first the first to use female ballet dancers, he converted it from a ball room activity to the stage, and he opened the paris opera ballet. Two facts: lost favor with the king in 1684 because of a sexual scandal. Died two weeks after an injury to his foot while conducting.

27

List four developments in the history of ballet that took place in France during the Baroque period.

1. Paris Opera Ballet company is founded.
2. Women are encouraged to join ballet.
3. Ballets are used to tell stories.
4. Five foot positions are created and developed (by Pierre Beauchamp).

28

How did ballet travel from France to Russia and what takes place once it arrives?

Tsar Peter the Great, ruler of Russia, traveled to Paris and saw ballet. He brought back French ballet teachers and ballet thrived in Russia.

29

Which are Tchaikovsky’s three best known ballets?

“Swan Lake”, “The Sleeping Beauty”, “The Nutcracker”.

30

Name five differences between ballet in the Baroque and Romantic periods.

1. Baroque was less technically difficult.
2. Romantic had shorter outfits (legs/arms were not covered)
3. In Romantic ballet, female has a prominent role and male typically has more of a supporting role.
4. Baroque ballet used boots as shoes.
5. Baroque ballet had more repetitive dance steps that were less athletic.