Flashcards in Data Handling and Analysis Deck (48):
What is quantitative data?
Data occurring in numerical form
What is qualitative data?
Data occurring in non-numerical form, expressing meaning, feelings and descriptions
What is quantitative data used for?
What is qualitative data used for?
Attitudes, opinions and beliefs
What is more reliable, qualitative or quantitative data?
What is a disadvantage of quantitative data?
What is an advantage of qualitative data?
Rich and detailed
Where is qualitative data collected?
In a real life setting
Where is quantitative data collected?
In an artificial setting
How is qualitative data converted into quantitative data?
Through content analysis
What kinds of techniques can be used to collect quantitative data?
Closed question questionnaires, experiments, observations, structured interviews
What kind of techniques can be used to collect qualitative data?
Open question questionnaires, unstructured interviews, some experiments in the form of opinions/comments from participants
What is primary data?
Data collected specifically towards a research aim that has not been published before
What is secondary data?
Data originally collected towards another research aim that has been published before
Why is primary data more reliable and valid?
Because it has not been manipulated in any way
What is good about secondary data?
It is drawn from several sources so can help to give a clearer insight into a research area that primary data cannot
What is a meta-analysis?
A process in which a large number of studies with the same research aim and methods are reviewed together are reviewed together and the combined data is tested by statistical techniques
What is content analysis?
A method of quantifying qualitative data through the use of coding units
What are 4 examples of coding units used in content analysis?
Time and Space
What are the strengths of content analysis?
Turns qualitative data into quantitative so it can be analysed
Reliable, because coding units are not open to interpretation and so are easy to replicate
Easy to perform because it is cheap and also non-invasive (does not require direct contact with participants
What are weaknesses of content analysis?
Does not identify causality, merely describes the data
Not done under controlled conditions
What are the 6 steps to thematic analysis?
Familiarisation with the data
Looking for themes
Reviewing the themes
Defining and naming the themes
What is familiarisation with the data?
Intensely reading the data to become immersed in its content
What is coding?
Looking for features of the data important to answering the research question and generating codes for the features
What is looking for themes?
Examining the codes and data to identify patterns of potential meaning (themes)
What is reviewing the themes?
Seeing if the themes answer the research question.
Themes are refined which can involve splitting, combining or discarding one
What is defining and naming the themes?
Detailed analysis of each theme to give each one an informative name
What is writing up?
Combining together all the information gained from the analysis
What are the three measures of central tendency?
What are advantages of the median?
Unaffected by 'freak' scores
Easier to calculate than the mean
Can be used for ordinal data but the mean can't
What are disadvantages of the median?
Can be unrepresentative in a small sample
Not as sensitive as the mean because not all the scores are used in the calculation
What are advantages of the mean?
Most representative because it uses all the data
What are disadvantages of the mean?
Not useful if the scores are skewed e.g. if there are some really large and some really small numbers
May not be one of the actual scores
What are advantages of the mode?
Less prone to distortion by 'freak scores'
Sometimes makes more sense than the mean e.g. you can't have 2.1 people
What are disadvantages of the mode?
Sometimes you can have more than one mode
Does not use all the scores
What are the two measures of dispersion?
Range and standard deviation
How do you calculate the range?
Subtract the smallest value from the largest value in a set of data
What are the advantages of the range?
Takes into full account the extreme values (uses all the data)
Easy and quick to work out
What are the disadvantages of the range?
Affected by 'freak' extreme values
Does not show whether data are clustered or spread evenly about the mean
What are advantages of standard deviation?
Allows for interpretation of individual scores
What are disadvantages of standard deviation?
Harder to calculate
Less meaningful if data are not evenly distributed
What can percentage data be plotted on?
A pie chart
What is correlation data plotted on?
A scattergraph, which indicates direction of correlation
When to use a bar chart and when to use a histogram?
Histograms are generally used for continuous data
Bar charts can be used for nominal data
What kind of data does a histogram use?
Advantage of frequency polygon?
2 or more frequency distributions can be compared on the same graph
What is a normal distribution?
Data with an even distribution of scores either side of the mean