Flashcards in Inferential Testing Deck (29):

1

## In the sign test, how do you know whether or not a result is significant?

### If the observed value is equal to or less than the critical value, so the null hypothesis is rejected

2

## In the sign test, what happens if the observed value (s) is lower than or equal to the critical value?

### The null hypothesis can be rejected

3

## In the sign test, what is the observed value (s)?

### The number of times the less frequent sign occurs

4

## In the sign test, what is the N value?

### The total number of pairs of scores, basically the total number of signs, omitting the '='

5

## What is a one-tailed hypothesis?

### Directional

6

## What is a two-tailed hypothesis?

### Non-directional

7

## What does a correlational study produce?

### A correlation coefficient

8

## What is a correlation co-efficient?

### A numerical value showing the degree to which two co-variables are related

9

## What do measurements range from in a correlation co-efficient?

### -1 to +1

10

## What does +1 show?

### A perfect positive correlation

11

## What does -1 show?

### A perfect negative correlation

12

## The closer the correlation to a perfect correlation...?

### The stronger the relationship between the two variables

13

## What are the three statistical tests to measure correlation?

### Chi-squared, Spearmans rho and Pearsons r

14

## What are inferences?

### Informed decisions

15

## What is inferential testing?

### A statistical procedure that makes predictions about populations from mathematical analysis of data taken from samples

16

## What are the three types of data?

### Nominal, ordinal and interval

17

## What is nominal data?

###
Named data that can be separated into CATEGORIES which do not overlap

Tally charts are often used

18

## What is ordinal data?

### Data which is placed in an order or scale e.g. ratings from 1-10

19

## What is interval data?

### Data which is a standardised measurement unit e.g. weight, height, time, distance, temperature

20

## What are the things you must think about when deciding what statistical test to use?

### Is the experiment looking for difference or a correlation, is the data ordinal nominal or interval, what kind of experimental design is it? Related or unrelated? Related = repeated measures or matched pairs, unrelated = independent groups

21

## What is the rhyme you must remember to remember what kind of statistical test to use?

### Carrots Should Come Mashed With Sweed Under Roast Potatos

22

## What is probability?

### The likelihood of events being determined by chance

23

## What is significance level?

### Statistical criteria determining if the observed difference/relationship is beyond the boundaries of chance

24

## In a sign test, if the observed value (s) is lower than or equal to the critical value for a critical value of 0.05, what does this mean in terms of significance?

### That the result is significant, because there 5% or less probability that the result occurred due to chance

25

## What is a type 1 error?

###
When the null hypothesis is wrongly rejected because it is accepted that there is a significant difference/correlation when actually there isn't one

The significance level has been set too high

26

## What is a type II error?

###
When the null hypothesis is wrongly accepted because there actually is a significant difference/correlation but the researcher does not acknowledge it

The significance level has been set too low

27

## When would you use a sign test?

### Nominal data, looking for a difference, and repeated measures or matched pairs design is used

28

## When would you use a chi-squared?

### Nominal data, independent groups design is used, looking for a difference or a correlation

29