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Flashcards in Day 1 Deck (31):
1

What is hyperplasia?

An increase in cell number - occurs due to stimulus

2

What happens to cell number if the hyper plastic stimulant is removed?

growth regresses back to norm

3

Give examples of hyper plastic responses.

The lining of the uterus (endometrium) stimulated by hormones during periods

Liver regeneration after resection

4

Smooth muscle can undergo hyperplasia.
True/False?

False
hypertrophy not hyperplasia

5

What is hypertrophy?

increase in cell size
more organelles in the cytoplasm since more is being asked of the cell

6

Which types of muscle undergo hypertrophy?

skeletal and cardiac

7

Give an example of hypertrophy of cardiac muscle.

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

8

What is atropy?

decrease/loss in cell size ± number

9

When does atropy occur?

when stimulus is withdrawn

10

Give examples of atropy.

astronauts' muscles waste since not using them
plaster cast - muscles in cast not used

11

What is metaplasia?

Reversible change of one mature cell type to another (mature type)

12

Which type of epithelium is most commonly exposed to external environment?

squamous

13

Give detailed examples of metaplastic change.

Barrett's oesophagus: oesophageal squamous -> intestinal columnar

Smoking: ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar cells of bronchus -> squamous epithelium

14

Is it normal to find goblet cells in Barrett's oesophagus?

Yes, they secrete mucin which tries to protect the oesophagus from acid reflux

15

Keratinised epithelium is red, shiny and found on the outside of the body.
True/False?

True that it is outside
False it is not red and shiny, but pink and hard

16

Where would you find non-keratinised epithelium?

the oral cavity, very end of nose

17

What is neoplasia?

New growth (without stimulus)

18

Neoplasia is not a term for cancer, but can it be malignant?

Yes.
Neoplasms can be benign, pre-malignant or malignant

19

Give an example of a pre-malignant neoplasm

colorectal adenomas

20

Give an example of a purely benign neoplasm

squamous papilloma

21

Is squamous dysplasia benign or malignant?

It is graded according to severity - it may be benign but with dysplastic potential.

22

Carcinoma in-situ is the best prognostic type of squamous dysplasia.
True/False?

False.
Carcinoma in-situ represents severe abnormality and is the closest to becoming full blown malignancy.

23

What is the definition of a cyst?

An abnormal closed, epithelium-lined sac that contains liquid or a semi-solid substance.

24

If a cyst is not lined with epithelium, what is it called?

pseudo cyst
lined by pseudo-stratified cells

25

What are the 3 main causes of acute pancreatitis?

alcohol
idiopathic
gallstones

26

What do white cysts indicate?

necrosis

27

Why would you find white cysts on a pancreas?

pancreatic enzymes have auto digested the pancreatic cells

28

Which area of the stomach is more likely to have a cancer?

lesser curvature

29

"shallow, heaped up rolled edges" most likely describes which sort of change?

malignancy

30

What are 3 cellular signs of an adenocarcinoma?

high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio
irregular nuclear contours & pleomorphism
intracellular mucin

31

What causes a signet ring shape?

mucin in cytoplasm pushes nucleus to side