Flashcards in Day 2 Deck (36):
What is age of menarche and what is it a risk factor for?
Age of girl when she gets her first period - early menarche is a risk factor - indicated early onset of ovulatory cycles
Does high fruit and veg intake affect the risk of cancer?
increased fruit and veg intake decreases risk of lung cancer in smokers
Which nutritional supplements actually increase the risk of cancer and in which subgroup of the population?
asbestos workers and smokers - increase risk of lung cancer
Why does excess b-carotene increase the risk of lung cancer in these people?
in excess acts as a pro-oxidant - induce oxidative stress either by producing reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant processes
Which cancers does alcohol increase the risk of?
Which by-product is a potential carcinogen found in toast and coffee?
What are the 4 types of tumour?
What defines an epithelial tumour?
it rests on a basement membrane
Outside exposure -> (which cell type?)
Skin -> ?
keratinising with adnexal (accessory) structures
Internal -> ?
Give examples of where you would find non-keratinising epithelial tumours?
Mouth, oesophagus, ear canal, vagina, cervix, anus
Where would you find ciliated glandular cells?
trachea - pseudo stratified ciliated columnar
What is the specific term for epithelial malignancy?
Which type of malignancies are children more likely to get?
haematological, bone and brain
How is colorectal cancer spread?
lymphatic spread to local lymph nodes in mesentery and following its vascular supply
Which lymph nodes would a testicular cancer spread via?
para-aortic lymph nodes
What term is used for mesenchymal tumours?
Lymphatic spread is common in sarcomas.
very rare - if lymphatic spread present, it's probably not a mesenchymal tumour
What is the morphology of a mesenchymal tumour?
spindle-cell lesions - elongated tapered shape to cells - solid looking
Which type of genetic mutations are sarcomas associated with?
specific large translocations
What is lymphoma?
a tumour-like metastases in lymph nodes - swelling and classical features of a 'tumour'
What is leukaemia?
circulating malignant cells in the blood and bone marrow - no mass
What type of malignancy does a funny distribution of lymph cell involvement indicate?
Which cancer can involve the the liver and spleen diffusely -> organomegaly?
A FBC of a patient with lymphoma would be high?
True - cells are abnormal
False - may be low - due to marrow involvement
What does lymphoma look like?
solid white mass - not pleomorphic like other tumours
What is a melanoma?
Malignant tumour of the skin
What type of tumour is a melanoma?
Is a melanoma bengin?
no it is malignant despite -oma ending
What are some examples of tumours which have a benign ending (oma) but are malignant?
What is another name for a brain tumour?
What prevents a primary brain tumour from spreading?
blood brain barrier
Smoking is linked with which virus as a cause of cervical cancer?
human papilloma virus (HIV)
What are Weinberg Hallmarks?
6 principles summarising the underlying principles of cancer