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Flashcards in Day 2 Deck (36):
1

What is age of menarche and what is it a risk factor for?

Age of girl when she gets her first period - early menarche is a risk factor - indicated early onset of ovulatory cycles

2

Does high fruit and veg intake affect the risk of cancer?

increased fruit and veg intake decreases risk of lung cancer in smokers

3

Which nutritional supplements actually increase the risk of cancer and in which subgroup of the population?

beta-carotene supplements
asbestos workers and smokers - increase risk of lung cancer

4

Why does excess b-carotene increase the risk of lung cancer in these people?

in excess acts as a pro-oxidant - induce oxidative stress either by producing reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant processes

5

Which cancers does alcohol increase the risk of?

breast
bowel
liver
mouth/throat
oesophageal
stomach

6

Which by-product is a potential carcinogen found in toast and coffee?

acrylamide

7

What are the 4 types of tumour?

Epithelial
Mesenchymal
Haematological
Neuroectododerm

8

What defines an epithelial tumour?

it rests on a basement membrane

9

Outside exposure -> (which cell type?)

squamous epithelium

10

Skin -> ?

keratinising with adnexal (accessory) structures

11

Internal -> ?

non-keratinising

12

Give examples of where you would find non-keratinising epithelial tumours?

Mouth, oesophagus, ear canal, vagina, cervix, anus

13

Where would you find ciliated glandular cells?

trachea - pseudo stratified ciliated columnar

14

What is the specific term for epithelial malignancy?

carcinoma

15

Which type of malignancies are children more likely to get?

haematological, bone and brain

16

How is colorectal cancer spread?

lymphatic spread to local lymph nodes in mesentery and following its vascular supply

17

Which lymph nodes would a testicular cancer spread via?

para-aortic lymph nodes

18

What term is used for mesenchymal tumours?

sarcomas

19

Lymphatic spread is common in sarcomas.
True/False?

False
very rare - if lymphatic spread present, it's probably not a mesenchymal tumour

20

What is the morphology of a mesenchymal tumour?

spindle-cell lesions - elongated tapered shape to cells - solid looking

21

Which type of genetic mutations are sarcomas associated with?

specific large translocations

22

What is lymphoma?

a tumour-like metastases in lymph nodes - swelling and classical features of a 'tumour'

23

What is leukaemia?

circulating malignant cells in the blood and bone marrow - no mass

24

What type of malignancy does a funny distribution of lymph cell involvement indicate?

lymphoma

25

Which cancer can involve the the liver and spleen diffusely -> organomegaly?

lymphoma

26

A FBC of a patient with lymphoma would be high?
True/False?

True - cells are abnormal
False - may be low - due to marrow involvement

27

What does lymphoma look like?

solid white mass - not pleomorphic like other tumours

28

What is a melanoma?

Malignant tumour of the skin

29

What type of tumour is a melanoma?

neuroectoderm

30

Is a melanoma bengin?

no it is malignant despite -oma ending

31

What are some examples of tumours which have a benign ending (oma) but are malignant?

hepatoma
lymphoma
sarcoma
melanoma

32

What is another name for a brain tumour?

glioma

33

What prevents a primary brain tumour from spreading?

blood brain barrier

34

Smoking is linked with which virus as a cause of cervical cancer?

human papilloma virus (HIV)

35

What are Weinberg Hallmarks?

6 principles summarising the underlying principles of cancer

36

What are the 6 Hallmarks of cancer?

1. Self-sufficiency in growth signals
2. Evading growth suppressors
3. Resisting cell death (apoptosis)
4. Replicative immortality
5. Sustained angiogenesis
6. Tissue invasion and metastasis