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Flashcards in DD Bugs Brainscape Deck (52):
1

Staphylococcus aureus- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + cocci, B-hemolytic, and mannitol fermenters

2

Staphylococcus aureus- Disease Association

cutaneous infections, TSS, food poisoning, pneumonia, foreign body infections, endocarditis

3

Staphylococcus aureus -Virulence Trait and Factors Eliciting an Immune Response

Coagulase (fibrin walls off abscess, no phagocytosis) and Protein A (B-barrel toxin that binds to Fc-IgG -> no complement or phagocytosis), superantigen toxin -> TSS and food poisoning.

4

Staphylococcus aureus -Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

B-lactamase (MRSA) and change in PBP.

5

Staphlycoccus epidermis- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + cocci, catalase and urease +

6

Staphlycoccus epidermis-Disease Association

Infection with foreign bodies, i.e. catheters, prothesis and heart valves

7

Staphlycoccus epidermis-Virulence Trait

Extracellular glycocalyx (slime) to help adhere

8

Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + Cocci

9

Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)- Disease Association

Pharyngitis, skin and wound infections, post-strep (glomerunephritis and rheumatic fever)

10

Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)- Virulence Trait

M protein; resist phagocytosis and hydrolytic enzymes

11

Streptococcus pneumonia- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram + diplococci, alpha hemolytic and bile soluble

12

Streptococcus pneumonia- Disease Association

BS MOPS- Bacteremia, Septicemia, Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia!, Sinusitis

13

Streptococcus pneumonia- Virulence Trait

Antiphagocytic polysacchardie capsule (also elicits response), IgA catalase

14

Viridans streptococci- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + cocci, alpha/non hemolytic, abundant in mouth

15

Viridans streptococci- Disease Association

Endocarditis (esp. after dental work)

16

Viridans streptococci- Virulence Trait

Dextran which allows for it to adhere to mouth and heart

17

Enterococcus faecalis and faecium- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + cocci, normal flora of intestine (selected by therapy with cephalosporin)

18

Enterococcus faecalis and faecium- Disease Association

Do U <3 trees? UTI, endocarditis, biliary tree, and surgical wounds

19

Enterococcus faecalis and faecium- Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

Vancyomycin resistant, nosocomial (pt to pt contact)

20

Clostridium difficile- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram + rods

21

Clostridium difficile- Disease Association

nosocomial diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis (resist from superinfection)

22

Clostridium difficile- Virulence Trait

exotoxin A: brush border (traveler's diarrhea), exotoxin B: depolymerize actin (pseudo. colitis)

23

Clostridium difficile- Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

Resistant to most antibiotics (except Vancomycin and Metronidazole)

24

Clostridium tetani- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram + rod, soil, GI tract, and rusty nails

25

Clostridium tetani- Disease Association

tetanus (spastic paralysis, lock jaw, and arching back)

26

Clostridium tetani- Virulence Trait

Tetanus toxin; retrograde axonal transport of toxin to CNS, blocks inhibitory interneurons leading to spastic paralysis)

27

Clostridium botulinum- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram + rods, spore forming

28

Clostridium botulinum- Disease Association

botulism (jaundice and flaccid paralysis)

29

Clostridium botulinum- Virulence Trait

botulinum toxin (blocks ACh transmission, resulting in flaccid paralysis)

30

Clostridium perfringens- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram + rod

31

Clostridium perfringens-Disease Association

"crushing wound infections, watery diarrhea

32

Clostridium perfringens-Virulence Trait

alpha toxin (phospholipase enzyme that kills phagocytic cells and muscle tissue) and enterotoxin (in food; disturbs tight junctions in ileum)

33

Escherichia coli- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram - rod, catalase +, ferments lactose, normal flora in large intestine

34

Escherichia coli- Disease Association

GI (travelers diarrhea and enterohemorrhagic), UTI, abdominal infections (escape into peritoneal cavity)

35

Escherichia coli- Virulence Trait

Pili (for adhesion to intestinal wall and bladder epithelium), enterotoxin and shiga-like toxin

36

Escherichia coli- Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

Can aquire resistance through acquisition of plasmids

37

Pseudomonas aeruginosa- Gram Stain and Characteristics

Gram -rod, oxidase and catalase +

38

Pseudomonas aeruginosa- Disease Association

Cystic Fibrosis (intrinsic resistance), nosocomial infections (UTIs, #1 for pneumonia, and intravascular catheter-related infections (consider if hospitalized pt has new infection)

39

Pseudomonas aeruginosa- Virulence Trait

exopolysaccharides

40

Pseudomonas aeruginosa- Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

Intrinsic resistance to staphlococcal drugs

41

Neisseria gonorhoeae- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram - diplococci

42

Neisseria gonorhoeae- Disease Association

gonorrhea, conjunctivitis leading to blindness in infants born to infected mothers

43

Neisseria gonorhoeae- Virulence Trait

pilus for adherance and resistance to phagocytosis, also phase variation on H pili antigen

44

Neisseria gonorhoeae- Common Antibiotic Resistance Mechanism

PCN, FQ, and emerging cephalosporin resistance

45

Bacteroides fragilis- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram - rod, anaerobic (other then clostridia, but aerotolerant)

46

Bacteroides fragilis- Disease Association

endogeneous (brain and abdominal) anaerobic abscesses

47

Bacteroides fragilis- Virulence Trait

antiphagocytic capsule and production of superoxide dismutase

48

Chlamydia trachomatis- Gram Stain and Characteristics

gram - cocci or rod, obligate intracellular bacteria

49

Chlamydia trachomatis- Disease Association

Trachoma (chronic conjunctiva leading to blindness, in countries w/poor hygiene) and Genital infections (co-infect w/gonorrhea can can cause conjuntiva too in fetus of infected mothers)

50

Mycoplasma pneumonia- Gram Stain and Characteristics

No gram stain b/c no cell wall, but contain sterols in PM

51

Mycoplasma pneumonia- Disease Association

Walking pneumonia in young ages by direct contact with infected respiratory secretions

52

Mycoplasma pneumonia- Virulence Trait

adherence to respiratory epithelial cells, produces H2O2 and superoxide radicals, which damages host tissue.