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concurrent validity

degree to which new test correlates with an established test of known validity


construct validity

degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs, concepts, or expectations


content validity

measure of the validity of a test based on a thorough examination of all test items to determine whether the items are relevant to measuring what the test purports to measure, and whether the items adequately sample the full range of the skill being measured


predictive validity

accuracy with which a test predicts the future performance on a related task



A= baseline
B= treatment
A= treatment withdrawal
B= reinstatement of treatment


Chromosome 15 is duplicated from the father or deleted from the mother; Seizures, a stiff jerky gait, laughter and a happy demeanor, an easily excitable personality, hypermotoric behavior, hand-flapping movements, and short attention span

Angelman Syndrome


Physical characteristic include syndactyly and craniosynostosis, resulting in smaller anterior-posterior skull diameter, flat frontal and occipital bones and high forehead, increased intracranial pressure, and compensatory growth in cranial structures

Apert syndrome


Cause by an absence of the short arm of the 5th chromosome; High-pitched cry of long duration; the cry resembles that of a cat; low-set ears, narrow oral cavity, laryngeal hypoplasia, microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia, and oral clefts

Cri du Chat syndrome


Autosomal dominant inheritance; Craniosynostosis and hypoplasia of the midface, maxilla, or both; small maxillary structure, sphenoethmoidal synchondroses, ocular hypertelorism (eyes that are far apart), protrusion of the eyeballs, strabismus, parrot-like nose, facial asymmetry and tall forehead, malocclusion class III in some cases, a highly arched palate, shallow oropharynx, and a long, thick soft palate, and brachycephaly (short head)

Crouzon syndrome


Extra whole number chromosome 21, resulting in 47

Down syndrome


Expansion of the nucleic acid CGG, which repeats too often on the fragile X mental retardation gene, located at the bottom of the X chromosome; Large, long, and poorly formed pinna, a big jaw, enlarged testes, and a high forehead

Fragile X


Autosomal recessive deficiency of X-L iduronidase

Used to be called "gargoylism"; Dwarfism, a hunchback, ID, short and thick bones, coarse facial features with a low nasal bridge, sensorineural deafness, and noisy respiration

Hurler's syndrome


Autosomal recessive inheritance, in most cases; in some cases may be a part of Stickler syndrome; Mandibular hypoplasia, a cleft of the soft palate, VPI, a deformed pinna and low set ears, and temporal bone and ossicular chain deformities

Pierre-Robin syndrome


Autosomal dominant inheritance and deletion in the region of the long arm of chromosome 15 in some cases; Low muscle tone, early feeding difficulties, failure to thrive initially, obesity after the first year, excessive eating, and underdeveloped genitala

Prader-Willi syndrome


Autosomal dominance inheritance in most cases; Underdeveloped facial bones, including mandibular hypoplasia (small chin) and malar (cheek) hypoplasia, dental malocclusion and hypoplasia, and downwardly slanted palpebral fissures

Treacher Collins syndrome


Extra copy of chromosome 13; Associated with congenital heart defects, severe brain abnormalities, spina bifida, severe eye defects, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly

Trisomy 13


Occurs only in females and is caused by a missing or deformed X chromosome in most cases; Broad chest with widely spaced nipples, elbows bent away from midline, pigmented skin lesions, narrow maxilla and palate, and micrognathia (abnormally small jaw)

Turner syndrome