Flashcards in Deck #2 Deck (28):
Social Contract (ROUSSEAU)
not interested in perfect society
"taking men as they are and laws as they can be"
Best Form of Government (ROUSSEAU)
Never depicts the best form of gov.
"a form of govt depends on the people"
State of Nature (ROUSSEAU)
Primitive Roots/Remote Ancestors
(Hobbes & Locke looked @ present)
Failure of Hobbes & Locke (ROUSSEAU)
"None of the philosophers have reached the true state of nature"
didn't go deep into history.
Characteristics of Man (ROUSSEAU)
1. Animal Stupidity
2. Lack of Reasoning
3. Inability to Speak
Real Misery? (ROUSSEAU)
is civil life or natural life more freed?
You are more miserable in society than in primitive natural state
Theory of Natural Men (ROUSSEAU)
Ignorance is bliss.
Start of the Corruption of State of Nature (ROUSSEAU)
1. Introduction of Private Property
2. Discussion of Self-interest
General Will (ROUSSEAU)
Large # of small differences and the deliberation wold always be good
Conceptions of Freedom (ROUSSEAU)
1. Natural Freedom (natural state)
2. Civil Freedom
3. Moral Freedom
(# 2 and 3 same weight once you reach society)
Natural Freedom (ROUSSEAU)
It exists in the state of nature. An unlimited right to everything that tempts him. Limited by how strong you are.
Force of the individual determines one's natural freedom!
Civil Freedom (ROUSSEAU)
You have it only in society. Limited by the General Will
You get property once you give up your natural freedom
(Higher than Natural Freedom)
Moral Freedom (ROUSSEAU)
Makes a man truly the master of himself.
(You gain moral and civil freedom once you give up natural freedom)
What does liberty mean? (MILL)
Not controlling absolute rulers
Worried about the force of public opinion
Public Opinion (MILL)
can be strong enough to stifle people's opinion
Negative Liberty (MILL)
Liberty from interference (social and political)
Protects the Private Sphere
Self Regarding Actions [SRA] vs. Other Regarding Actions [ORA]
SRA- society has no place in these acts
actions which only affect one-self + affects others with their free or self-regarding effect
Affects others in an indirect manner if @ all
Actions which directly affects others
Social Tyranny Example (MILL)
fornication- Argument (an individual's sex life is not the public's business) S.R.A
S.R.A Categories Exceptions (MILL)
1. children -> those below the age of consent
2. mentally disable + elders
3. certain races; "barbarians, 3rd world countries"
Utilitarian Argument (MILL)
"the greatest good of the greatest measure is the measure of right and wrong"
Liberty a natural right? (MILL)
No. there is no support for the existence of natural rights
Arguments for Opposing Opinions (MILL)
1. Natural Infallibility
2. Truth in Opinions
3. Absence vs. Rationality
4. Personal Growth
1. Natural Infallibility (MILL)
You cannot assume infallibility. Even the greats have made mistakes (Socrates, Jesus)
Because we are all infallible, we could not silence something you didn't believe in
2. Truth in Opinions (MILL)
Even if the opinion someone contains is false, it does hold some truth.
the collision of adversarial opinions can bring light to some truths
3. Absence vs. Rationality (MILL)
In the absence of arguments, humans will believe anything that they are told. Opinions must be rational ground . if not questioned they are irrational