Deck IV Flashcards Preview

USMLE World Missed Questions > Deck IV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck IV Deck (30):
1

What nerves and vessels supply the ovary?

The ovarian artery/ vein and vagus nerves supply the ovaries. They are contained in the suspensory ligament of the ovary.

2

From what embryological derivative does the spleen receive its blood supply?

The splenic artery is a derivative of the foregut (branch of the celiac trunk)

3

From what embryologic tissue is the spleen derived?

Mesodermal dorsal mesentery.

4

What bursa is most likely to be inflammed in a patient who spends a lot of time on his knees?

Prepatellar bursa

5

What causes prepatellar bursitis?

Repeated kneeling.

6

What rinne test result distinguishes a conductive hearing loss?

The affected ear is abnormal with bone conduction > air conduction.

7

What rinne test result distinguishes a sensorineural hearing loss?

Rinne test is normal in both ears where air conduction > bone conduction.

8

What weber test result distinguishes a conductive hearing loss?

Weber test is localizes to the affected ear.

9

What weber test result distinguishes a sensorineural hearing loss?

Weber test localizes to unaffected ear.

10

Describe the Weber and Rinne test results in a patient with conductive hearing loss.

Rinne test is abnormal with BC > AC in the affected ear. Weber test localizes to the affected ear.

11

Describe the Weber and Rinne test results in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss.

Rinne test is normal in both ears where air conduction > bone conduction; Weber test localizes to the unaffected ear.

12

Name six possible causes of conductive hearing loss.

Cerumen impaction, cholesteatoma, otosclerosis, external or middle ear tumors, tympanic membrane rupture, severe otitis media.

13

Name four possible causes of sensorineural hearing loss.

Meniere's disease, acoustic neuromas, presbycusis, ototoxic drugs (e.g. aminoglycosides)

14

What embryologic structures fuse to form the uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, and superior 1/3 of the vagina?

Paramesonephric ducts.

15

What conditions may occur if the paramesonephric ducts fail to fuse in a female?

Bicornuate uterus, uterus didelphys.

16

What is the principle difference in location between a femoral hernia and an indirect/ direct hernia?

Direct and indirect inguinal hernias occur above the iinguinal ligament; femoral hernias are located below it.

17

Describe the location of a femoral hernia?

Inferior to the inguinal ligament, lateral to the pubic tubercle, and medial to the femoral vein.

18

Where is the maxillary sinus located?

Just below the orbital floor.

19

In a patient with a high risk of PE, where is a surgical filter most likely to be placed?

In the IVC

20

What structures are dissected in an emergency cricothyrodtomy procedure?

Superficial cervical fascia and cricothyroid membrane.

21

When is a cricothyrotomy indicated?

When emergency airway is required and orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation is either unsuccessful or contraindicated.

22

What strucures are inciced in a cricothyrotomy?

Skin; superficial cervical fascia; investing and pretracheal layers of the deep cervical fascia; cricothyroid membrane.

23

What is the cause of death in all infants borh with bilateral renal agenesis?

Respiratory failure and renal failure within hours of birth.

24

What is the clinical presentation of an injury to the common peroneal nerve from a proximal fibula fracture?

Loss of sensation of the dorsum of the foot and between the first and second digits of the foot; motor deficits resulting in a 'foot drop'.

25

What is a nursemaid's elbow injury?

Radial head subluxation; the most common elbow injury in children.

26

What is the pathology of a nursemaid's elbow injury?

Torn and displaced annular ligament; painful only when attempts are made to move the elbow.

27

Which nerve exits the pelvis through the obturator foramen?

The obturator nerve.

28

What is the function of the obturator nerve?

To innervate the adductor compartment of the thigh (i.e. contributes to adduction of the thigh)

29

What is the consequence of improper fusion of the maxillary prominence with the medial nasal prominence during embryonic development?

Cleft lip.

30

What causes cleft palate?

Failure of palatine shelves of the maxillary prominence to fuse with one another or with the primary palate.