Flashcards in Deck V Deck (30):
What is phosphatidylcholine, the component of pulomary surfactant and sphingomyelin commonly known as?
Pregnant patients taking Valproate are at risk for passing what types of conditions on to their offspring?
Neural tube defects (ex meningiocele)
On contrast MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis infection presents in what way?
Multiple ring enhancing lesions.
Neisseria meningitidis is what kind of organism?
Gram negative cocci.
What drug is used as prophylaxis of close contacts of patients with invasive meningococcal infection?
How does rabies encephalitis classically present?
Restlessness, agitation, dysphagia, progression to coma 30-50 days post exposure.
The vaccination for rabies is an example of what kind of vaccine?
What is orotic aciduria?
A disorder of pyrimidine metabolism characterized by megaloblastic anemia, neurologic abnormalities, growth retardation, and excretion of high amounts of orotic acid in the urine.
What enzymes are deficient in orotic aciduria and what is their function?
Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase, OMP decarboxylase; both function to convert orotate to UMP
How is orotic aciduria treated?
What are the clinical symptoms of acute vitamin A toxicity?
Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, blurred vision.
What are the clinical symptoms of chronic vitamin A toxicity?
Alopecia, dry skin, hyperlipidemia, hepatotoxicity, hepatosplenomeagly, visual difficulties.
What are the clinical symptoms of teratogenic vitamin A toxicity?
Microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, fetal death (especially in the first trimester).
In lead poisioning, what enzymes are most sensitive to toxic exposure (i.e. inactivated by lead)?
d-aminolevulinate dehydratase and ferrochetalase are most sensitive to lead inhibition.
What byproducts accumulate in lead poisioning?
d-ALA and protoporphyrin IX.
What class of drugs commonly interact with Linezolid?
What are the classic symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
Neuromuscular excitation (hyperreflexia, clonus, myoclonus, rigidity); autonomic stimulation (hyperthermia, tachycardia, diaphoresis, tremor); Altered mental status (agitation and confusion)
What is Linezolid used to treat?
Serious gram positive bacterial infections, particularly VRE and MRSA.
What serious side effect is associated with a multiple drug regimen including Linezolid?
Serotonin Syndrome; Linezolid is a weak MAO inhibitor.
Name three commonly used drugs that can induce serotonin syndrome when used concomitantly with other serotonergic drugs.
Tramadol, ondansetron (antiemetic), linezolid.
How long must symptoms of schizophrenia be present in order to be classified as schizophrenia?
Over 6 months.
How long must symptoms of schizophrenia be present in order to be classified as brief psychotic disorer?
Less than 1 month
How long must symptoms of schizophrenia be present in order to be classified as schizophreniform disorder?
From which spinal cord level does the trigeminal nerve arise?
Mid pons at the level of the middle cerebellar peduncles.
What is a key neuro-anatomical landmark that is used to locate the trigeminal nerve?
Middle cerebellar peduncles.
What symptoms are caused by infarcts involving the anterior portion of the medial pons?
Dysarthria and contralateral hemiparesis.
Impaired adduction of the eye depends on what nerve and muscle?
CN III and the medial rectus muscle.
Describe the path through which the occulomotor nerve travels.
Originates in the occulomotor nucleus of the midbrain, emerges from the anterior midbrain, enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure.
What nerve mediates the sensory limb of the corneal reflex?
Nasociliary branch of CN V opthalmic.