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Flashcards in deck_885778 Deck (23):

What is cardiogenic shock?When does it occur?

Inability of heart to eject enough blood MI, serious arrhythmias, acute worsening on heart failure


What is mechanical shock?When does it occur?

Due to:1. Restriction on heart filling e.g. Cardiac tamponade2. Obstruction to blood flow thorough lungs e.g. Pulmonary embolism


What happens in cardiogenic shock?

Heart fills, but can't pump effectivelyDrop in arterial BPTissues are poorly perfused


What happens in cardiac tamponade?

Blood in pericardial space, restricts heart filling, lowers end diastolic volHave high CVP and low arterial BP


What happens in a pulmonary embolism?

embolus occludes large pulmonary artery, RV cant empty, incerase pulmonary artery pressure, limits left heart filling, low left arterial pressure, low arterial blood pressure --> shockCauses chest pain and dyspnoea


What causes hypovolaemic shock?

Reduced blood volumeUsually due to haemorrhage 20-30% loss = some signs of shock30-40% loss = substantial mean BP decrease, serious shock response-- severe burns-- sever diarrhoea, vomiting and loss of Na+


What is the severity of hypovolaemic shock related to?

amount and speed of blood loss


What are the effects of hypovolaemic shock?What is the compensatory response of the body?

Venous pressure falls causing cardiac output to fall. Arterial pressure falls, detected by baroreceptors which causes:-- increased sympathetic stimulation-- tachycardia-- increase force of contraction-- peripheral vasoconstriction-- venoconstriction


Describe internal transfusion and why it is present in hypovolaemic shock

Increased peripheral resistance decreases the capillary hydrostatic pressure. Fluid moves into capillaries from tissue


What are the clinical signs of hypovolaemic shock?

TachycardiaWeak pulsepale skincold and clammy extremities


What are the overall effects of peripheral vasoconstriction?

Impairs tissue perfusion-- hypoxia causes tissue damage-- vasodilators released-- TPR falls-- BP falls-- vital organs aren't perfused-- multi-system failure


What is distributive shock also known as?What is distributive shock?When does it occur?

Normovolaemic shockDue to uncontrolled falls in peripheral resistance. There is increased peripheral vasodilation decreasing TPR(Blood vol is constant, but the volume of the circulation has increased)Toxic and anaphylactic shock


Describe what happens in toxic shock

Endotoxins are released by circulating bacteria-- cause vasodilation, decreased TPR, decreased arterial pressure, impaired perfusion of vital organs, capillaries become leaky reducing blood volume-- decreased arterial pressure increases sympathetic output, increasing HR and stroke volume


What are the clinical signs of toxic shock?

TachycardiaWarm, red extremities


What are the clinical signs of anaphylactic shock?

– difficulty breathing -- bronchoconstriction and laryngeal oedema – collapsed– rapid heart rate– red, warm extremities


What happens in tissues in an anaphylactic shock?

Release of histamine from mast cells as well as leukotrienes and bradykininCauses fall in TPR due to vasodilator effectsFall in arterial pressure, increasing sympathetic response to increase COVital organ perfusion is preventedBronchoconstriction and laryngeal oedema occur


What is the treatment for anaphylactic shock? What does it do?

AdrenalineCauses vasoconstriction via actin present at alpha one receptor in blood vessels Causes and increase in TPR, increasing arterial pressure


How can you treat cardiogenic shock?

Getting fluids into the patient


What is the pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure?How is it measured?

Catheter which is entered into femoral vein and travels up to heart to measure pressure in pulmonary artery. A pressure transducer on the end of the catheter is wedged into a small pulmonary artery to measure pressure in the left atrium.


How would you treat septic shock?

Fluids and antibiotics


How would you treat hypovolaemic shock?

Infuse 500ml of fluids then measure to see if BP and HR have stabilised. If not, measure central venous pressure by JVP to see if they have fluid overload.


What are some chemical mediators released in anaphylaxis?



Define general shock

Acute circulatory failure as a result of inadequate or inappropriately distributed tissue perfusion, resulting in generalised lack of O2