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AS Biology (Unit 1: F211) > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (39):
1

Magnification

The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself. Numerically, it is the image size divided by the actual size measured in the same units.

2

Resolution

The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are very close together. The higher the resolution, the greater the detail that can be seen.

3

Staining

Any process that helps to reveal or distinguish different features. In light microscopy, stains may be coloured or fluorescent dyes. In electron microscopy, they are heavy metal salts.

4

Cytoskeleton

Network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to the cell, and also moves organelles around inside cells.

5

Organelle

A particular structure of a cell that has a specialised function. Some organelles are membrane-bound, others are not. All perform a particular role in the life processes of the cell.

6

Division of labour

Any system where different parts perform specialised functions, each contributing to the functioning of the whole.

7

Phospholipid bilayer

The basic structural component of plasma membranes (cell surface membranes). It consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules. Proteins are embedded in this layer.

8

Fluid mosaic model

The model of cell membrane structure. The lipid molecules give fluidity and proteins in the membrane give it a mosaic (patchwork) appearance. The molecules can move about.

9

Cell signalling

Cells communicate with one another by signals. Many molecules act as signals - some signal during processes taking place inside cells; others signal from one cell to another. Cytokines are an example of cell signals.

10

Diffusion

The passive net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration down a potential gradient.

11

Active transport

The movement of molecules or ions across membranes, which uses ATP to drive protein 'pumps' within the membrane.

12

Hypertonic

A solution with a lower water potential (higher solute concentration) compared to the cell.

13

Hypotonic

A solution with a higher water potential (lower solute concentration) compared to the cell.

14

Isotonic

A solution with the same water potential (same solute concentration) compared to the cell.

15

Osmosis

Passive net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential, down the water potential gradient.

16

Cell cycle

The events that take place as one parent cell divides to produce 2 daughter cells which then grow to full size. For single-celled organisms, the cell cycle is the life cycle, and each daughter cell is an offspring.

17

Mitosis

The process of nuclear division where 2 genetically identical nuclei are formed from 1 parent cell nucleus, producing 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical.

18

Meiosis

The process of nuclear division where 4 genetically different nuclei are formed from 1 parent cell nucleus, producing 4 daughter cells that are genetically different.

19

Homologous pair

Chromosomes that have different versions of the same genes at the same loci (alleles). All chromosomes in a diploid organism come in pairs and those produced by sexual reproduction have one from the father and one from the mother, creating variation.

20

Clones

Cells and organisms that are genetically identical to the parent.

21

Differentiation

The changes that occur in cells of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell becomes specialised to perform a specific function.

22

Stem cells

Undifferentiated cells that are capable of becoming differentiated to a number of possible cell types.

23

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform a particular function.

24

Organ

A collection of tissues that work together to perform a specific overall function or set of functions within a multicellular organism.

25

Organ system

A number of different organs working together to perform an overall life function in a multicellular organism.

26

Tidal volume

The volume of air moved in and out of the lungs with each breath at rest. It's approximately 0.5 dm^3.

27

Vital capacity

The largest volume of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs in any one breath. It's approximately 5 dm^3.

28

Residual volume

The volume of air that always remains in the lungs, even after removing the expiratory reserve. It's approxiamtely 1.5 dm^3.

29

Dead space

The air in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles not involved in gas exchange.

30

Inspiratory reserve

The maximum amount of air that can be inspired over the tidal volume during a deep breath.

31

Expiratory reserve

The maximum amount of air that can be expired under the tidal volumed when breathing out as hard as possible.

32

Single circulatory system

A circulation in which blood flows through the heart once during each circulation of the body.

33

Double circulatory system

A transport system in which blood travels twice through the heart for each complete circulation of the body.

34

Open circulatory system

Blood is not located inside vessels and instead bathes the tissue directly.

35

Closed circulatory system

Blood is always located inside vessels and is pumped around the body at high pressure.

36

Transpiration

Loss of water by evaporation from the aerial parts of a plant.

37

Xerophyte

A plant that is adapted to reduce water loss so that it can live in arid conditions.

38

Source

An area that releases sucrose into the phloem.

39

Sink

An area that removes sucrose from the phloem.