Definitions Flashcards Preview

Newtonian World > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (30):
1

absolute zero

the temperature at which substance has minimum ener

2

specific heat capacity

energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by unit temperature

3

thermal equilibrium

if there is no net heat transfer between two objects

4

latent heat of vaporisation

the energy required to change a liquid into a gas at a constant temperature

5

latent heat of fusion

the energy required to change a solid to a liquid at a constant temperature

6

internal energy

sum of the random kinetic energy and potential energy of molecules in a substance

7

assumptions of the kinetic model of ideal gases

1. elastic collisions with the walls of the container
2. forces between molecules are negligible except during collisions
3. time of collisions much compared to the time between molecules
4. volume of molecules is negligible compared to volume of container

8

Boyle's law

pressure is inversely proportional to volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature

9

mole of a substance

6.02x10^23 particles of the substance

10

Newton's first law

a body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted on by a force

11

Newton's second law

the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the net force acting on it in the direction of the force

12

Newton's third law

when one body exerts a force on another body the other body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first body

13

linear momentum

mass x velocity

14

principle of conservation of linear momentum

total momentum is conserved for a closed system

15

elastic collision

kinetic energy is conserved

16

inelastic collision

where there is some loss of kinetic energy in a collision

17

impulse of a force

force x time for which the force acts

18

gravitational field strength

force per unit mass at a point in a gravitational field

19

Newton's law of gravitation

gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

20

Kepler's third law

the cube of the distance from the planet to the sun divided by the orbital period squared is the same for all planet's

21

conditions for circular motion

resultant force acts perpendicular to he velocity

22

geostationary orbit

an equatorial orbit with a period equal to the rotation period of the earth and in the same direction of the earths rotation

23

radian

53.7 degrees

24

simple harmonic motion

11. acceleration is proportional to the displacement
2.acceleration is directed in the opposite direction the displacement

25

displacement in simple harmonic motion

distance of a body from its equilibrium position

26

amplitude

maximum displacement

27

frequency

the number of oscillations per second

28

angular frequency

measure of the tangential frequency of oscillations

29

phase difference

an angular measurement of how much one oscillation lags or leads another

30

resonance

occurs wen the frequency of oscillation of a driving force is very close to the natural frequency of the driven system; this results in maximum energy transfer to the drive system leading to very large amplitude oscillations