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Newtonian World > Thermal Physics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thermal Physics Deck (22):
1

Brownian Motion

The random movement of microscopic particles in a fluid as a result of continuous bombardment from the molecules of surrounding medium

2

Internal Energy

the sum f the random kinetic and potential energies of molecules in a substance

3

what causes a change in internal energy

A rise in temperature
A change in state

4

Specific Heat Capacity of a substance

the amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1kg of the substance by 1 degree

5

0 Kelvin

273.15 Degrees Celsius

6

Latent heat of fusion

the heat needed to change a mass of 1 kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid at the same temperature

7

Latent heat of vaporisation

the heat needed to change a mass of 1kg of a substance from a liquid to a gas at the same temperature

8

Boyle's Law

pressure and volume are of a gas are inversely proportional when the temperature is constant

9

spacing, ordering and motion of solids

around 1nm
they have a regular structure
vibrate around a fixed position

10

spacing, ordering and motion of liquids

around 1nm
it has no fixed shape
molecules are free to move and move randomly

11

spacing ordering and motion of gases

spacing is a few powers of ten larger
move in rapid random motion

12

pressure

force per unit area

13

thermal equilibrium

there is no net transfer of heat/ thermal energy between two objects

14

Why are absolute scales used

They don't depend on characteristics of any particular substance

15

absolute zero

the temperature at which a substance has minimal internal energy

16

when is E=mc∆θ used

to determine the c (specific heat capacity) of a substance
or find the energy required to increase the temperature of a substance

17

ideal gas equation

pV=T

18

4 assumptions of the kinetic theory model of ideal gases

1. elastic collisions with the walls of the container
2. forces between molecules are negligible except during collisions
3. time of collisions is much smaller that the time between collisions
4. the volume of molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the container

19

what is Avagadro's constant

the amount of particles which are in one mole of a substance; 6.02x10^23 particles

20

what does each letter mean in pV=nRT

p is pressure
V is volume
n is number of moles
R is 8.31 (molar gas constant)
T is temperature

21

what does each letter mean in pV=NkT

p is pressure
V is volume
N is number of molecules
k is 1.38x10^-23
T is temperature

22

mean transational kinetic energy of atoms equation

E=3/2 kT