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Flashcards in Definitions Deck (32):
1

Necrosis

In a living organism, the morphological changes that occur after a cell has been dead some time.

2

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death, with shrinkage

3

Gangrene

Grossly visible necrosis

4

Infarct

Area of dead tissue- necrosis caused by acute ischaemia

5

Starlings law

Fluid flow across vessels is determined by balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure across plasma and interstitial fluid

6

Acute inflammation

Response of living tissue to injury - aims to protect body against infection.

7

Chronic inflammation

Chronic response to injury with associated fibrosis

8

Granulomatous inflammation

Chronic inflammation with granulomas

9

Autocrine signalling

Cell responds to signalling molecules they produce

10

Intracrine signalling

Cell synthesises a factor which binds to intracellular receptor in the cell- not secreted.

11

Paracrine signalling

Cells produce signalling molecule that acts on adjacent cells

12

Endocrine signalling

Hormone synthesised by cells in endocrine organ, conveyed in the blood stream to target cell.

13

Haemostasis

The body's response to stop bleeding and loss of blood

14

Thrombosis

Formation of a solid mass of blood within the circulatory system during life.

15

Embolism

Blockage of a blood vessel by solid, liquid or gas at a site distant from its origin

16

Atheroma

Accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lipid in the intima and media of large and medium sized arteries

17

Atherosclerosis

The thickening and hardening of arterial walls as a consequence of atheroma

18

Arteriosclerosis

The thickening of the walks of arteries and arterioles, usually as a result of hypertension or diabetes mellitus

19

Regeneration

Replacement of cell losses by identical cells to maintain tissue organ/size

20

Hyperplasia

Increase in tissue/organ see due to increased cell numbers

21

Hypertrophy

Increase in tissue/organ size due to increase in cell size

22

Atrophy

Shrinkage of a tissue/organ due to an acquired decrease in size &/or number of cells

23

Metaplasia

Reversible change of 1 differentiated cell type to another

24

Aplasia

Complete failure of a specific tissue/organ to develop

25

Hypoplasia

Congenital! Underdevelopment/incomplete development of a tissue/organ. Inadequate number of cells within the tissues present (on a spectrum with Aplasia)

26

Dysplasia

Abnormal maturation of cells within a tissue. Reversible. As pre-neoplastic alteration in which cells show disordered tissue/organ

27

Reconstitution

Replacement of a lost body part. Requires coordinated responses of several types of cell

28

Involution

Normal programmed shrinkage of an organ

29

Atresia

No orifice

30

Benign neoplasia

The abnormal growth of cells p, which persists after initiating stimulus has been removed. Irreversible.

31

Malignant neoplasia

Abnormal growth of cells which persists after initiating stimulus has been removed and invades surrounding tissue with potential to spread to distant sites.

32

Oxidative stress

Imbalance between free radical production and scavenging