definitions Flashcards Preview

Organic and analytical definitions > definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in definitions Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...
1

Alicyclic

Containing carbon atoms joined together in a ring that is not aromatic.

2

Aliphatic


Containing carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

3

Aromatic

Containing one or more benzene rings

4

cis-trans isomerism

A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups attached to each carbon of the C=C group are the same

5

Curly arrow

The movement of an electron pair, showing either heterolytic fission or formation of a covalent bond.

6

Delocalised electrons

Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms

7

Electrophile

An atom (or group of atoms) which is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.

8

E/Z isomerism

An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C group.

9

Heterolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one atom, forming a cation and an anion.

10

Homologous series

A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2

11

Homolytic fission

The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.

12

Hydrocarbon

A compound of hydrogen and carbon only

13

Nucleophile

An electron pair donor

14

Optical isomerism

An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of non-superimposeable mirror images about a chiral centre.

15

Radical

A species with an unpaired electron

16

Reflux

The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture back to the original container to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry

17

Saturated


Containing single C-C bonds only

18

Stereoisomerism

Compounds with the same structural formula but different arrangement of atoms in space

19

Structural isomerism

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae

20

Unsaturated

Containing at least one multiple C-C bond