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IPAP Micro #4 Flashcards > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (26):
1

Commensalism

A type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another, in which one member is unaffected by the relationship and the other benefits from it.

2

Diarrhea

abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal discharges.

3

Dysentery

Any of various disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially of the colon and attended by pain in the abdomen, tenesmus and frequent stools containing blood and mucus. Causes include chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa or parasitic worms.

4

Ectoparasite

A parasite that lives on the outside of its host rather than within the host's body. Fleas and lice are examples.

5

Endoparasite

Any parasite which lives in the internal organs of an animal, as the tapeworms, Trichina, etc.; opposed to ectoparasite.

6

Eosinophilia

The formation and accumulation of an abnormally large number of eosinophils in the blood.

7

Host, Definitive

The host in which a parasite reproduces sexually.

8

Host, Intermediate

That host which harbors the immature, larval, or asexually reproducing forms of the parasite.

9

Host, Reservoir

The host of an infection in which the infectious agent multiplies and/or develops, and upon which the agent is dependent for survival in nature; the host essential for the maintenance of the infection during times when active transmission is not occurring.

10

Mutualisam

Symbiosis in which both populations (or individuals)gain from the association and are unable to survive without it.

11

Parasitism

A type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another, in which one member depends on another for its nutrients, protection, and/or other life functions.

12

Symbiosis

A type of organism-organism interaction where one organism lives in intimate association with another.

13

Virulence

The degree or ability of a pathogenic organism to cause disease.

14

Autoinfection

1.  Reinfection by microbes or parasitic organisms on or within the body that have already passed through an infective cycle, such as a succession of boils, or a new infective cycle with production of a new generation of larvae and adults, as by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis or the cestode Hymenolepsis nana.

2. Self-infection by direct contagion as with parasite eggs passed in the infectious state transmitted by fingernails (anal-oral route), as with the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Synonym: autoreinfection, self-infection.

15

Vector

1.  a carrier, especially the animal (usually an arthropod) that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.

16

Bilharzia

Schistosoma. Used most often in Spanish-speaking countries.

17

Parenchyma

the essential elements of an organ

18

Schiz, Schizo

A combining form meaning divided or denoting relationship to division. Splitters.

19

Schizogony

A form of asexual reproduction characteristic of certain sarcodines and sporozoa in which daughter cells are produced by multiple fission of the nucleus of the parasite (schizont) followed by segmentatin of cytoplasm to form separate masses arund each smaller nucleus.

20

Schizont

The multinucleate stage or form in the development of certain sarcodines and sporozoa during schizogony.

21

Scolex

The attachment organ of a tapeworm, or the head.

22

Sporogony

Sporulation. In protozoa, sporulation involving multiple fission of a sporont (schizogony), resulting in theproduction of sporocysts and sporozoites.

23

Sporozoite

The elongate, nucleated, motile infective stage resulting from sporogony in gregarine and coccidian protozoa. In malaria, the sporozoites of Plasmodium spp. are liberated from the oocysts in the mosquito, accumulate in the vector's salivary glands, and are transferred to the definitive host by the bite of the infected mosquito.

24

Strobila

The chain of proglottids constituting the bulk of the body of adult tapeworms; considered y some to include the entire body, including the head, neck and proglottids.

25

Trophozoite

The active, motile, feeding stage of a protozoan organism, as contrasted with the nonmotile encysted stage.

26

Xenodiagnosis

A method of animal inoculation using laboratory-bred bugs and animals in the diagnosis of certain parasitic infections when it is not possible to demonstrate the infecting orgamism in blood films. Originally used in the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chaga's Disease).