Flashcards in Definitions Deck (30)
The products have LESS energy than reactants (so change in energy, ∆G, is -ve)
The products have MORE energy than reactants (so change in energy, ∆G, is +ve)
Sequence of consecutive biochemical reactions.
The product of one reaction becomes the reactant of another.
The activation of one pathway while the opposite pathway is suppressed.
Relating to or denoting the alteration of the activity of an enzyme by means of a conformational change induced by a different molecule.
(Where the product concentration increases and that increase in product causes the product to bind to the enzyme in a different location and changes the conformation of the enzyme's active site and it can inhibit or promote the enzyme)
When concentration of a product rises above required level, excess concentration inhibits enzyme activity (allosteric enzyme).
Production is stopped.
When concentration of that product drops below required level, production continues again.
1st law of thermodynamics
Amount of NRG in universe is constant - cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermodynamics
In all natural processes, the entropy (disorder) of the universe increases.
Phosphoryl Group Transfer
The name given to the chemical process of the transfer of the phosphoryl group (PO3) from a phosphate ester or anhydride to a nucleophile.
Transfer of energy from catabolism to anabolism, or transfer of energy from exergonic process to endergonic process.
Free energy (from ATP hydrolysis) is coupled or functionally linked to the energy needs of another chemical reaction
The synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy
The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
The breakdown of glucose (6C) to two pyruvate (3C)
Enzymes that catalyse the transfer of the terminal phosphoryl group from ATP to an acceptor nucleophile.
(Subclass of transferases).
Kinases require Mg2+ for it's activity.
Producing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources once glycogen stores are depleted.
Release of glucose (from glycogen break down) for ATP production
Storage of energy rich glucose (into glycogen).
When a phosphate group is ADDED to a molecule
One molecule is changed into another with exactly the same atoms, just different arrangement
Catalyses the conversion of a specified compound to an isomer
Enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the shifting of a functional group from one position to another within the same molecule
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Transfer of phosphate from a phosphorylated molecule to ADP forming ATP (so phosphate group is REMOVED from molecule)
Involved in MAKING alpha 1-4 bonds between glucose units.
Involved in MAKING alpha 1-6 bonds between glucose units at the branch point.
Involved in BREAKING alpha 1-4 bonds between glucose units. Breaks glycogen up into glucose subunits
Involved in BREAKING alpha 1-6 bonds between glucose units at the branch point.
Phosphorylates hexose sugars forming hexose phosphates.
Transmembrane differences in proton concentration are the reservoir for the energy extracted from biological oxidation reactions.