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LMBR10 Psychology > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (27)
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1

Define Eudamonia

BR 323 &321
 

The perspective that happiness comes from inherent meaning and purpose, and human
nature works to discover that meaning, finding what nourishes and what dampens it in order
to live life in a full and deeply satisfying manner.
Eudamonia comes from the thought that humans are born full of meaning and purpose and
they discover, not acquire, it throughout their lives. 
 

2

Define Hedonia

BR 323 &321
 

The perspective that happiness is characterized by the presence of positive emotions
and expressions in the absence of negative emotions and expressions, with an overall high
amount of life satisfaction. Hedonia comes from the thought that humans are born empty
and acquire meaning through cultural and social interactions.
 

3

Define

Q3: Therapeutic Lifestyle Change

BR323
 

Is using positive lifestyle changes, such as improving diet, sleep, relationships, and
spirituality, to address and support mental health and emotional well-being.
 

4

Define

Q4: Positive Psychology

BR323
 

The study of the strengths and virtues that allow individuals and communities to thrive. It
does not minimize misery, but rather focuses on amplifying happiness through positive affect
and individual strengths and virtues.
 

5

Define Positive Affect

BR323
 

Contentment with the past, happiness in the present and hope for the future.

6

Define Connectivity

BR323
 

The “quality, state, or capability to be connected,” as defined by Merriam-Webster.
Longevity, health, and physiologic measures, such as heart rate, are improved with positive
social interactions and even brief authentic social interactions.
 

7

Define Micro-movement of connectivity

BR323
 

Brief but authentic social interactions.
 

8

Define Positive resonance

BR323
 

Positive social interactions.
 

9

Compare / contrast the effects of therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) and exercise on mental disorders

 

BR317
 

1) TLC can be as effective as psychotherapy and pharamcotherapy in multiple medical disorders including depression.

2) Role of exercise 

a) Exercise ALONE has only a small (+) effect on Rx of depression vs noRx/control Rx.  Exercise has NOT been shown to be better than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy.

b) Some studies show a synergistic effect of exercise in combo w anti-depressants.

c) Exercise may be effective in Rx depression in the elderly

d) Routine physical activity in childhood may be protective against depression as a young adult.

10

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Healthy lifestyle should not just promote physical health but also mental and
emotional well-being.
B) Therapeutic lifestyle change is not as effective as psychotherapy and
pharmacotherapy
C) Therapeutic lifestyle change can help treat and control multiple mental disorders. 
D) Diet, sleep, and physical activity play a very important role in the prevention,
progression and treatment of major depression.
E) Therapeutic lifestyle change interventions can include time in nature, religious or
spiritual involvement, service to others.

BR317
 

B- Therapeutic lifestyle change can be as effective as psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy.
Therapeutic lifestyle change can help treat and control multiple mental disorders.(C) It can
also preserve and improve cognitive processing; and cultivate personal and social
well-being. Therapeutic lifestyle change can also include exercise and physical activity;
nutrition and diet; relationships; recreation, relaxation and stress management.(E)
 

11

All of the following statements are false except
A) Physical activity has no effect on mood and depression
B) Exercise should not be combined with antidepressant medications.
C) Exercise has not been shown to be better than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy in depression.
D) The elderly do not experience a reduction in depression with exercise
E) Routine physical activity and childhood does not have an effect on depression later in
life. 

BR317
 

C (is true)

- Some studies show a synergistic effect of exercise in combination with anti-depressant
medications. Physical activity can improve mood and reduce the symptoms of depression
(A). Although exercise has shown a small positive effect on treatment of depression
compared to no treatment or control treatment, exercise has not been shown to be better
than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy

(B). Exercise may be an effective treatment for
depression in the elderly

(D). Routine physical activity and childhood maybe protective against depression as a young adult

(E). 

12

Among approximately 100,000 Japanese young adults, those who slept ____to____hours a
night had improved mental health compared to those who slept less than____ or more than
____. There was also a linear relationship between ___________ and mental health. 

BR 317

Among approximately 100,000 Japanese young adults, those who slept a night had improved mental health compared to those who slept less than 7 or more than 9 hours
. There was also a linear relationship between sleep quality and mental health​

13

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Meditation can result in mild to moderate reductions in the negative dimensions of
mental stress.
B) Mindfulness can mildly lower stress scores even in people who have mental health
disorders, such as depression or anxiety
C) College students to practice mindfulness reported lower stress levels, less use of
avoidance and greater use of assertive coping skills like addressing the situation.
D) The health care practitioner does not need to include a treatment plan for mental and
emotional wellness since there is no connection between healthy lifestyle and
emotional well-being and mental health. 

BR 319
 

D- The health care practitioner should be mindful that all the major elements of a healthy lifestyle are connected with emotional well-being and mental health and prescribe therapeutic lifestyle change as part of a treatment plan for mental and emotional wellness.
 

14

What are habits for emotional well-being?

BR319
 

1. Finding and improving signature strengths
2. Counting blessings
3. Expressing appreciation
4. Savoring the pleasing things in life
5. Writing down how one wants to be remembered
6. Regularly practicing acts of kindness
7. Thinking of one’s happiest days frequently
8. Doing activities that feel meaningful
9. Connecting and interacting with others regularly in person and not solely or mainly
through social media

15

Positive psychology focuses on amplifying happiness through individual strengths and
virtues. Which of the following is not a character strength? 

A) appreciation of beauty and excellence
B) love of learning
C) Leadership
D) Perseverance
E) Self-aggrandizement 

BR320
 

E- Character strengths include appreciation of beauty and excellence, bravery, creativity,
curiosity, fairness, forgiveness, gratitude, honesty, hope, humility, humor, judgment,
kindness, leadership, love, love of learning, perseverance, perspective, prudence,
self-regulation, social intelligence, spirituality and teamwork. Self aggrandizement is not a
character strength
 

16

Which of the following statements is true?
A) Depression was 20% more likely to develop in adults who frequently ate fast food
compared to those who avoided it.
B) An increased rate of depression occurs in a linear dose response curve with higher
trans-fat intake. Whereas depression is negatively associated with intake of mono-
and poly-unsaturated fats.
C) Fried foods, refined grains, sugary products and beer have no impact on the rates of
anxiety and depression in adults. 
D) Lower rates of mood disorders are seen when deficiencies in folate, vitamin B 12,
calcium, iron, selenium, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids are present.
E) Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids show no benefits on bipolar and depression, are not
well tolerated and should not be recommended. 

BR318
 

B- Depression was 40%, not 20%, more likely to develop in adults who frequently ate fast food compared to those who avoided it. ('Fast Food Forty percent)

(A) Fried foods, refined grains, sugary products and beer were associated with higher rates of
anxiety and depression in adult Australian and Norwegian women, where as a “traditional”
diet of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish and meat was associated with lower rates.

( C ) Higher rates, not lower, of mood disorders are seen when deficiencies in folate, vitamin B
12, calcium, iron, selenium, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids are present.

(D) Some studies show fish oil may help reduce symptoms of depression. However, other
studies show little benefit of treating depression with fatty acids. Treatment with omega-3
fatty acids does appear beneficial among some populations, such as those with depression
or bipolar disorder a short four month trial among patients with bipolar disorder showed
longer periods of remission when they were treated with omega-3 fatty acids. Fatty acids
were well tolerated. (E)
 

17

List nutrients for which deficiencies have been associated with mood disorders

BR318
 

Deficiencies assoc with mood disorders:

Ca - calcium

Fe - iron

Se - selenium

Zn - zinc

F - folate

O - omega 3

B - B12

 

 

Mn: Cafe Season (Se, Zn) FOB (Fol, O3, B12)

18

Comment on psychology and the following:

a) Omega 3

b) Arachadonic acid

BR318
 

Omega 3

- Rx w O3 appears beneficial  in some populations such as those w depression or bipolar disorder.

- mixed results with fish oil & depression

Arachadonic acid

- AA (found in chicken and eggs) is assoc w increased depression rates & likelihood of suicide.

- therefore AA should be avoided.

19

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with which of the following:
A) Increased eudemonic feelings and behaviors
B) Improvement in depression, anxiety and productivity as well as health, quality of life
and productivity in the work place.
C) Lower anxiety and women and lower stress in men
D) Lower optimism
E) A & B
F) A, B, C

BR 318
 

E- A&B are true. Among young adults, increased eudemonic feelings (engagement, meaning
and purpose) and behaviors (curiosity and creativity) are associated with plant based diet as
well as improvement in depression, anxiety and productivity and health, quality of life and
productivity in the work place. (A&B) 
- Plant-based diet yielded lower scores for mood disturbance among men and women, with lower anxiety scores for men and lower stress scores for women.( C) It also has a lower risk
of depression.
It is associated with higher optimism (D). 
 

20

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Mood score significantly improved in two weeks for omnivores place on a vegetarian
diet with no fish or meat intake.
B) Vegetarians reported significantly less negative emotions in omnivores, despite lower
intake of long chain omega-3 fatty acids
C) Studies have shown improvement in mood with intake of saffron, turmeric, probiotics,
flaxseeds, walnuts and carbohydrate rich meals in the evening
D) Arachidonic acid is associated with decreased depression rates and likelihood of
suicide
E) Vitamin C is a cofactor for the neurotransmitter dopamine production

BR 318
 

D- Arachidonic acid, which is found in chicken and eggs, is associated with increased
depression rates and likelihood of suicide. 

21

Which of the following statements is true?
A) A positive mood helps increases the likelihood of eating unhealthy snack.
B) Happiness is significantly associated with lower BMI’s, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, meaningful time with family and no exposure to secondhand smoke.
C) Feeling overwhelmed is associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, being
sedentary.
D) Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less positive attitudes on the day
foods were eaten and on the following day among young healthy adults
E) Scores for vitality, flourishing and motivation decreased in 14 days in young adults
who were provided two additional servings of fruit and vegetables a day on top of
their normal diet

BR319
 

B- In adolescent girls, 11-19yo, happiness is significantly associated with lower BMIs, fruit
and vegetable consumption, physical activity, meaningful time with family and no exposure
to secondhand smoke.
A positive mood helps one resist the temptation of unhealthy snacks, Likely through
activating the centers of the brain that controls long-term goals such as health.

(A) In Chilean college students, being “very happy” was associated with eating fruits and
vegetables daily, being physically active daily, having a favorable view of stress, and being
younger and female.

(C) Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with more positive attitudes on the day foods
were eaten than on the following day among young healthy adults.  This suggests that fruit
and vegetable intake was the cause of the more positive attitude and not the reverse.

(D) Scores for vitality, flourishing and motivation increased in 14 days in young adults who were
provided two additional servings of fruit and vegetables a day on top of their normal diets.
This suggests fruit and vegetable intake was important for psychological benefits

(E)
 

22

Which of the following is not pillar of positive psychology?
A) Positive emotion
B) Engagement
C) Relationships
D) Meaning
E) Attitude

BR320
 

E- The pillars of positive psychology are PERMA:
Positive emotion is the ability to be optimistic and the ability to view the past present and
future in a positive fashion.
Engagement is being fully absorbed into the present moment with a blissful immersion that
stretches intelligence, skill or emotional capacity.
Relationships: one of the most important aspects of life are positive social connections with
other humans emotionally (love, connection, intimacy) and physically. The pain areas in our
brains will light up if we are at risk of being socially isolated.
Meaning: having a purpose for why one is on the earth is important to living a life of Filmin
and happiness.
Accomplishments (not Attitude): having ambition and accomplishing realistic goals produces
a sense of satisfaction, pride and fulfillment.
Mn: JS w smile, ring, partner, holy book, medal.

23

Which of the following statements is false?
A) The use of positive psychology activities in patients with chronic disease has not
shown any benefits.
B) Positive psychology indirectly aids in the maintenance of healthy behaviors and
continued wellness success
C) Positive psychology directly impacts the bodies physiological processes, leading to
emotional well-being, disease prevention or treatment.
D) Positive psychology is a key intervention and behavior change therapy 

E) Health practitioners should continue screening, diagnosing and referring to mental
health as appropriate; prescribe positive psychology activities; and leverage positive
psychology in behavior change counseling. 

BR320
 

A- The use of positive psychology activities in patients with chronic disease boost emotions
and produces emotional well-being. It also lowers the risk of distressing thoughts and lowers
the risk of suicidal ideation.
 

24

T/F
If one experiences eudamonia, they cannot experience hedonia and vice versa as there is
no commonality between these two traditions of thought for life and meaning and purpose.

BR321
 

False- If one experiences eudamonia, he is able to experience hedonia. There is
considerable overlap of these two traditions of thought for life and meaning and purpose
 

25

Which of the following statements regarding eudaimonia and physical health and longevity is
false?
A) There is continually growing evidence that eudaimonia is important in mitigating
disease risk and promoting longevity.
B) Emotional well-being is generally compromised in people with physical illnesses or
disabilities.
C) Having a purpose in life has no impact on Alzheimer’s cognitive impairment, strokes
and heart attacks.
D) Higher well-being improves biological function, especially with stress hormones and
inflammatory markers.
E) Eudaimonia is associated with gene regulation; pro-inflammatory genes are
downregulated while antibody synthesis genes are upregulated. Hedonia is
associated with the opposite pattern.

BR321
 

C-Having a purpose in life helps protect against Alzheimer’s cognitive impairment, strokes
and heart attacks.

26

Neuroscience shows eudaimonia is associated with:

BR 321
 

1. Less activation of the amygdala
2. More engagement of higher cortical function with negative stimuli 

3. Sustained activation of the reward circuit with positive stimuli.
4. Aid adaptive and protective functions
5. Associated with greater insular cortex volume 

27

Which of the following statements is true?
A) Connectivity and nurturing activate the sympathetic nervous system.
B) Social connections is one of the predictors of happiness and longevity. 
C) Usage of social media has no impact on depression. 
D) None of these statements are true

BR321-322
 

B is true 

- A 75 year cohort study on adult development looked at 268 male Harvard students from
graduating years 1939 to 1944 and 456 men from inner-city Boston and concluded that the
single most important predictor of happiness and longevity is having social connections.(B)

- Connectivity and nurturing activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which is the
opposite of the sympathetic nervous system which is what is activated with stress. (A)
- A sample of 1787 young adults, age 19 to 32, were asked about their social media use.
Those in the highest quartile for social media use had significantly higher rates of depression
(AOR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.86-4.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Results were linear in a
dose dependent trend. ( C )