Definitions from Pharmacology for Nurses (Adams) Flashcards Preview

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1

Pharmacology

Chapter 1.2

the study of medicines; the discipline pertaining to how drugs improve or maintain health

(Greek: pharmakon = "medicine" / logos = "study")

2

Therapeutics

Chapter 1.3

the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering

3

Pharmacotherapy

Chapter 1.3

the application of drugs for the purpose of treating diseases and alleviating human suffering; also called pharmacotherapeutics

4

Drug

Chapter 1.4

general term for any substance capable of producing biologic responses in the body

5

Medication

Chapter 1.4

drug after it has been administered

6

Biologics

Chapter 1.4

substances that produce biologic responses within the body; they are synthesized by cells of the human body, animal cells, or microorganisms

7

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies

Chapter 1.4

treatments that involve natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements, and additional techniques outside the realm of conventional therapeutics

8

Therapeutic Classification

Chapter 1.5

method for organizing drugs on the basis of their clinical usefulness in treating particular diseases or disorders

9

Pharmacologic Classification

Chapter 1.5

method for organizing drugs on the basis of their mechanism of action

10

Mechanism of Action

Chapter 1.5

the way in which a drug exerts its effects

11

Prototype drug

Chapter 1.5

well-understood model drug with which other drugs in a pharmacologic class may be compared

12

Chemical name

Chapter 1.6

strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

13

Generic name

Chapter 1.6

non-proprietary name of a drug assigned by the government

14

Trade name

Chapter 1.6

proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer; also called the brand name or product name

15

Combination drug

Chapter 1.6

drug product with more than one active generic ingredient

16

Bioavailability

Chapter 1.8

ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its target tissues

17

Pharmacoeconomics

Chapter 1.9

issues dealing with the cost of medications

18

Fomulary

Chapter 2.1

list of drugs and drug recipes commonly used by pharmacists

19

Pharmacopoeia

Chapter 2.1

medical reference indicating standards of drug purity and strength, and directions for synthesis

20

Excipients

Chapter 2.1

inactive ingredients in drugs

21

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Chapter 2.2

agency that regulates prescription and over-the-counter drugs

22

Black box warnings

Chapter 2.2

notifications within a prescription drug’s package inserts provided by the FDA to call attention to an extreme adverse drug effects

23

FDA's Critical Path Initiative

Chapter 2.3

effort by the FDA to modernize the sciences to enhance the use of bioinformation to improve the safety, effectiveness, and manufacturability of candidate medical products

24

Clinical investigation

Chapter 2.3

second stage of drug testing that involves clinical phase trials

25

Clinical phase trials

Chapter 2.3

testing of a new drug in selected patients

26

Investigational New Drug (IND)

Chapter 2.3

application to the FDA that contains all animal and cell testing data

27

New Drug Application (NDA) review

Chapter 2.3

the third phase of the drug approval process during which the drug’s trade name is finalized.

28

Postmarketing surveillance

Chapter 2.3

evaluation of a new drug after it has been approved and used in large numbers of patients

29

Dependence

Chapter 2.6

strong physiological or psychological need for a substance

30

Withdrawal

Chapter 2.6

physical signs of discomfort associated with the discontinuation of an abused substance