Flashcards in Degenerative Disc Disease Deck (71)
What is the most common location of DDD in the cervical and lumbar spine?
Cervical = C5/C6
Lumbar = L4/L5
What is the clinical term for DDD that affects the outer disc? Inner disc?
Outer = spondylosis deformans
Inner = intervertebral chondrosis
What radiographic feature marks spondylosis deformans (DDD of the outer disc)?
What radiographic feature marks intervertebral chondrosis (DDD of the inner disc)?
Reduced IVD space
Knutson's vacuum phenomenon is associated with what condition?
What is IVD osteochondrosis?
Primary degeneration of the nucleus pulposus
What is the underlying cause of an osteophyte?
Breakdown at site of attachment of outer annular fibers of the disc to the vertebral margin (disc bulging)
What is the vacuum (Knutson's phenomenon) seen with DDD?
Radiolucent collections of nitrogen gas within annular fibers
Where is the vacuum phenomenon best seen?
Anterior margin of IVD on extension films
What change to the endplate is seen with DDD?
What can subchondral endplate sclerosis due to DDD become confused with?
Infection or blastic tumor
What are the 4 major radiographic signs of DDD?
1 decreased disc height
3 end plate sclerosis
Type One medic end plate changes are more common in what are of the spine?
Which type of modic end plate changes is more common in the lumbar spine?
What color is CSF fluid on T1 MRI? T2?
T1 = black
T2 = white
Which modic end plate change of DDD is associated with sclerosis?
Which modic end plate change of DDD is associated with inflammation?
Which modic end plate change of DDD is associated with fat?
Describe the MRI parameters for each modic end plate type.
Type I = dark T1, bright T2
Type II = bright T1, bright T2
Type III = dark T1, dark T2
What is an important differential diagnosis to considered with Modic Type One?
Infection (presence of end plate destruction with increased signal intensity of the disc)
What other condition can appear similar to DDD but only present on one side of the disc?
What is the easiest way to tell if a compression fracture is acute?
Presence of marrow edema
At what age do most pars fractures occur?
What is usually the cause of pars fractures from 8-12 years of age?
Stress fractures (not injury)
About how long of a time span off away from stressors is necessary to allow for pars fracture healing?
What is becoming the gold standard for imaging pars interarticularis stress fractures?
Posterior joint arthritis is associated with subluxation in which direction?
Degenerative disc disease is associate with subluxation i which direction?
What is the most common location for a degenerative spondylolisthesis? Second more common?
#1 = L4/L5
#2 = L5/S1