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Diagnostic Imaging I Exam Two > Disc Herniations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disc Herniations Deck (41)
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1

What is the true definition of a disc herniation?

Projection of nuclear material through the annulus into the canal

2

Are disc herniations common?

NO; only 5% of back pain patients suffer from disc herniation

3

What is the gold standard imaging procedure to diagnosis a disc herniation?

MRI

4

How does the pain typically present with a disc herniation?

IMMEDIATELY

5

What is the most common complaint of patients with a disc herniation?

Back pain

6

What kinds of activities make the pain of a disc herniation work?

Sneezing, flexion, sitting, bowel movement

7

What is one of the most serious complications of a disc herniation?

Cauda Equina syndrome (1-16%)

8

What is cauda equina syndrome?

Compression of multiple nerve roots leading to altered bowel and bladder function, saddle paresthesia, muscle atrophy, and impotence

9

What neurological test can be used to assess for myelopathy?

Lhermitte's

10

What kind of canal can lead to asymptomatic herniations?

Increased canal size

11

What is the most common treatment for a herniated disc?

Discectomy

12

What is the most common age range for a disc herniation?

25-40 (which discs are juicy)

13

A C5/C6 disc herniation would compress which nerve root?

C6

14

What kinds of symptoms arise from a midline disc herniation in the cervicals?

Myelopathies

15

What kind of directional disc herniation causes nerve route compression below in the cervicals?

Lateral

16

What type of disc herniation in the lumbars will compress the nerve root BELOW? The nerve root at the same level?

BELOW = midline/paracentral
SAME LEVEL = foraminal

17

A L5/S1 foraminal disc herniation will compress what nerve root?

L5 nerve root

18

A L5/S1 midline disc herniation will compress what nerve root?

S1

19

Which types of disc herniations in the cervicals is most significant due to the compressive of the nerve root below? Lumbars?

Cervicals = lateral
Lumbars = midline/paracentral

20

What is the function of the IVD?

Dampen forces

21

What three things must be intact and functional for the IVD to successful work to dampen forces?

1 stability of annulus
2 hydration of nucleus
3 separation offed by endplates

22

What is the technique used by injecting a water-based or oil-based contrast into subarachnoid space to asses for disc herniations?

Myelography

23

What is the technique used by injected radiopaque contrast into the nucleus pulpous to image morphology?

Discography

24

How does discography show a present disc herniation?

Contrast will leak into spinal canal

25

Why are discography and myelography considered inferior to CT or MRI?

Invasive due to injection

26

If a disc herniation is visible on CT, what would be the FINDING?

Paracentral protrusion

27

What are the contents of the spinal canal?

1 thecal sac
2 epidural fat
3 internal vertebral plexus
4 ligamentum flavus
5 PLL

28

What are the MRI findings of a disc herniation?

1 focal bulge
2 obliterated epidural fat
3 deformed theca
4 displaced nerve roots
5 decreased MRI signal

29

What are the four steps of classification for a disc herniation?

1 bulge
2 protrusion
3 extrusion
4 sequestration

30

Which step of a disc herniation involves more than 25% of the disc diameter?

Bulge