Dementia Flashcards Preview

Neuroradiology > Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementia Deck (34):
1

What type of dementia?

medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and parietal atrophy.

Alzheimer's disease- AD

2

What type of dementia?

(asymmetric) frontal lobe atrophy and atrophy of the temporal pole.

Frontotemporal Lobar degeneration - FTLD

3

What type of dementia?

global atrophy, diffuse white matter lesions, lacunes and 'strategic infarcts' (infarcts in regions that are involved in cognitive function).

Vascular dementia

4

What type of dementia?

usually no specific abnormalities.

Dementia with Lewy bodies- DLB

5

The Global Cortical Atrophy is best assessed on this sequence:

FLAIR

6

The Medial Temporal Atrophy is best assessed on this sequence:

Coronal T1

7

Scoring system used i Parietal atrophy

Koedam score for Parietal Atrophy

8

Scaling system for WM lesions

Fazekas scale for WM lesions

9

list the Koedam score for PL atrophy

0- no atrophy
1 - Mild widening of posterior cingulate and Parietooccipital sulci
2- substantial
3 - extreme

10

FDG PET findings for AD

Hypo metabolism in TP lobe and or posterior cingulum

11

Ddx AD from FTD on PET

AD : affects TP lobe
FTD: FL

12

MTA is assessed on these features (3)

1. Width of choroid fissure
2. Width of temporal horn
3. Height of Hippocampal formation

13

Name the drug that is used for treatment of vascular dementia/ LB dementia

cholinesterase inhibitors

14

T/F?

FLAIR is a good sequence to look at infratentorial region and for spinal cord

FALSE

LIMITED use of FLAIR in these areas- It suppresses signal from water as well as pathology with long T1 relaxation time.

15

The FTLD is formerly known as...

Pick's disease

16

How would patients with FTLD present with?

behavioural and language disturbances

17

What is an asymmetrical FTLD?

In Semantic dementia, an FTLD subtype with progressive aphasia and Left sided TL degeneration

18

What conditions associated with Lewy body dementia (3)

1. Atypical parkinson syndrome
2. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy- PSP
3. Multi System Atrophy- MSA

19

How would patients with LB dementia present?

1. Detailed visual hallucination
2. Parkinson like symptoms
3. Fluctuations in alertness and attention

20

PSP

Part of atypical parkinsonian syndrome, with atrophy of midbrain
Upward gaze paralysis

Hummingbird sign

21

MSA

Combination of :
- Parkinsonian : MSA - P
- Cerebellar : MSA - C
- Pyramid
- Autonomic dysfunction : MSA - A ( formerly known as Shy- Drager syndrome)

22

MSA - A is formerly known as...

Shy Drager syndrome

23

Sign associated with MSA- C

Hot Cross Bun sign-

24

Re CJD

- What is it caused by?
- How do they present?

Caused by Prion

Present with progressive dementia leading to :
- memory loss
- personality changes
- hallucination

25

Imaging CJD

Spongiform changes in the cortical and subcortical grey matter with loss of neurons and replacement by gliosis.

26

What sequence is used to detect CJD

DWI

27

Where is affected in mad cow disease?

posterior part of thalamus known as pulvinar

28

Corticobasal degeneration- CBD

cognitive dysfunction with parkinson like symptoms .

29

Typical manifestation of CBD

Alien hand syndrome

30

MRI findings in CBD

asymmetrical parietal cortical atrophy with associated hyper intensities of the WM on T2

31

Patients with huntingdon disease present with:

Early onset dementia
Choreoathetosis
Psychosis

32

Imaging features of Huntingdon disease

Atrophy of caudate nucleus and subsequent enlargement of the frontal horns of the LV

33

CADASIL

hereditary condition- progressive cognitive dysfunction; may present with migraine, stroke like episodes and behavioural disturbances.

34

Imaging features of CADASIL

WM hyper intensities in FL and anterior TL with lacunar infarcts