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Flashcards in Dementias Deck (37)
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1

What are types/causes of cortical dementia?

C:APP
Alzheimer's
Pick's disease
PPA

2

What are the causes/types of subcortical dementias?

S:PHP
Parkinson's
Huntington's
Progressive supranuclear palsy

3

What are the types/causes of mixed dementia?

M:VLF
Vascular
Lewy body
Frontotemporal

4

Cortical dementia displays changes in what?

Cerebral cortex

5

Subcortical dementia displays changes in what?

Basal ganglia
Thalamus
Brainstem

6

Mixed dementia displays changes in what?

Cortical and subcortical

7

What disease shows changes in personality and emotion as first signs?

Pick's

8

What disease has a slow and insidious onset?

PPA

9

Alzheimer's neuropathy shows what 3 microscopic changes in brain neurons

Neurofibrillary tangles
Neuritic plaques
Granulivascular degeneration

10

What does Alzheimer's medical management look like?

Tranquilizers
Antidepressants
Cognex
Aricept

11

Cognitive and communication symptoms of Alzheimer's

Language less affected than cognition
Memory and intellect changes in early stages

12

Name the disease: neuropathy shows deterioration of dopamine producing neurons in basal ganglia and brainstem

Parkinson's

13

Parkinson's medical management

Levodopa

14

Name some symptoms of Parkinson's

Slow progressive deterioration of motor and mental functions
Muscles: rigid
Tremors
Flat affect
Shuffled gait
Memory and problem solving issues

15

Cognitive and communication impairments of Parkinson's

Voice: weak
Speech rate increases
Intelligibly decreases
Micrographics
Drooling/swallowing impairments
Vocal, grammar, syntax usually preserved until late stages

16

What disease is an inherited, degenerative neurologic disease?

Huntington's

17

Name the disease: neuropathy shows loss of neurons in caudate nucleus and putamen and patchy loss of cortical neurons in frontal and temporal lobes

Huntington's

18

Huntington's medical management

Rx's to control movement and emotional/psychological effects

19

Name some symptoms of Huntington's

First: involuntary movements
Irritability and emotional outbursts
Mental deterioration
Progressive motor impairments

20

Name the disease: cognition and communication deficits:
Dysarthria
As chorea increases, intelligibility declines and dysphasia develops
Become more mute, incontinent, and demented

Huntington's

21

What are the 3 types of dementias?

Cortical
Subcortical
Mixed

22

Name the disease: is caused by neuronal loss/abnormalities, and proliferation of glial cells throughout brainstem and basal ganglia

PSP (progressive supranuclear palsy)

23

T/F: there is a known treatment for PSP?

False: there is none

24

T/F: PSP has tremors similar to Parkinson's

False: no tremors but rigidity and slow moving like Parkinson's

25

Name the disease: early symptoms include paralysis of muscles for downward gaze, rigid neck muscles, and weak face muscles

PSP (progressive supranuclear palsy)

26

Name the disease: cognition and communication deficits include: dysarthria, slow speech, reduced vocal loudness, lang is ok, mutism is common

PSP

27

What is another name for AIDS?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalopathy

28

AIDS neuropathy shows what?

Infection that causes pathologic changes in subcortical white matter and basal ganglia (eventually progresses to cortex)

29

AIDS medical management

antiviral drugs to prolong life and lessen severity dementia complex

30

AIDS evolution/symptoms

early: extrapyramidal pathology; later: cortical involvement

31

Name the disease: cognition and communication deficits include mild word retrieval problems, later: speech is dysarthric and eventually reduced to single words

AIDS

32

T/F: pure vascular dementia is uncommon

True: majority have AD and VD

33

What is the most common type of vascular dementia?

multi-infarct dementia

34

Name the disease: usually occurs after 75 and affects more males than females

Lewy Body dementia

35

Name the dementia: leads to tissue shrinkage and reduced function in brain's frontal and temporal lobes

Frontotemporal dementia

36

Name the dementia: people speak easily but words convey less and less meaning. Tend to use broad/general terms. Language comprehension also declines

Semantic dementia

37

Name the dementia: people lose ability to generate words easily, speech becomes halting, and ungrammatical

PPA (primary progressive aphasia)