Flashcards in DEMOGRAPHY Deck (64):
what leads to a population increase?
do deaths and emigration lead to a population increase or decrease?
define natural change
more births than deaths
define net migration
more immigration than emigration
define birth rate
the number of live births per thousand of the population per year
define total fertility rate
the average number of children women will have during their fertile years (15-44)
what are reasons for changes in the fertility and birth rates?
women remaining childless
post posing having children
what has the changes in the positioning of women led to ?
easier to divorce
what does Harper believe the education of women has lead to ?
the delay of childbearing to get a career
define infant morality rate
the number of infants who die before their 1st birthday per thousand babies born per year
why does Harper say there has been a decline in infant morality rate?
more infants are surviving
parents have fewer children
what is the expected cultural number of constant births supposed to be by 2041
800,000 per year
how many births per year were there in 1900?
29 per thousand births per year
how many births were recorded in 2014
12 per thousand per year
define death rate
the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year
what have the number of births halved from since 1900
in 1900 there were 19 thousand deaths which has now dropped to 8.9 thousand deaths by 2012
what does Tranter believe the decline in death rate since 1850 to 1970 is due to?
what was the main causes of death in 1950?
heart disease and cancer
according to McKeown what is the reason for the reduction in death rates?
what does Mckeowns death fail to explain?
why the deaths rose from some diseases at the time of improved nutrition
what does Harper believe has led to the greatest decrease in deaths?
what fraction of adults were obese in 2012?
how many deaths did smog lead to in 1952?
define life expectancy
how long on average a person born in a give year can expect to live
in 1990 what was the life expectancy for men and women?
in 2013 what was the life expectancy for men and women?
how many years earlier are those from poorer area of the UK to die according to Walker?
7 years earlier than those in rich areas
movement into society
the difference between the number of immigrant and emigrants
when did black immigrants start coming from the carribean?
when were nationality and immigration acts put in?
for how long did the nationality and immigration acts restrict non white immigration?
from 1962 to 1990
by 1980 what proportion of non whites accounted for all immigrants?
by 2011 ethnic minority groups accounted for how much of the population?
where did most immigrants come from?
the european union
from 2000-2013 how much did international migration increase by?
what do citizens have full citizenship rights of not?
citizens have full citizenship rights
how are Denizens viewed?
they are privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state
what are Helots?
the most exploited group
what % of nurses in the UK are migrant?
what is increased life expectancy, declining infant morality and declining fertility caused by?
what dos Hirsch predict by 2041?
there will be more 78 year olds than 5 year olds
what are the effects of the ageing population?
older people retire = more services needed
one person pensioner households = not enough housing for other people
the dependency ration all increase
age status' are socially constructed. negative stereotyping often portrays the old as incompetent and a burden
why does Phillipson believe old people are no longer use to capitalism?
because they are no longer productive
what does postmodern society believe the elderly become?
a market for a range of goods and services
does Hunt believe about age?
our age no longer determines who we are or how we live
what % of age discrimination has age concern (2012) reported?
the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disappearing
what has resulted in the rise of globalisation?
what does Vertovkc say about migrants?
they now come from a much wider range of countries
what is a hybrid identity
made up of 2 or more different sources
define hierarchical identities
ranking themselves in terms of nationality
what did Eade find out about 2nd generation muslims?
they created hierarchical identities in Britain.
what does Erikesen believe about globalisation?
it has created diverse migration patterns
what does Erikesen say translation identities is?
people see themselves belonging to more than one culture
what is the 1st state policy to immigration?
what is the aim of assimilation
to get immigrants to adopt to the language, values and customs of the culture
what is a limitation of assimilation?
transnation migrants with hybrid identities may not be willing to abandon their culture
what is multiculturalism
accepting that migrants may with to retain a separate culture identity
what are the two types of diversity Eriksen introduces?
regarding chicken tikka masala as Britains national dish is acceptable