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Flashcards in DEMOGRAPHY Deck (64):
1

what leads to a population increase?

births
immigration

2

do deaths and emigration lead to a population increase or decrease?

decrease

3

define natural change

more births than deaths

4

define net migration

more immigration than emigration

5

define birth rate

the number of live births per thousand of the population per year

6

define total fertility rate

the average number of children women will have during their fertile years (15-44)

7

what are reasons for changes in the fertility and birth rates?

women remaining childless
post posing having children

8

what has the changes in the positioning of women led to ?

easier to divorce
equality act
equal pay

9

what does Harper believe the education of women has lead to ?

the delay of childbearing to get a career

10

define infant morality rate

the number of infants who die before their 1st birthday per thousand babies born per year

11

why does Harper say there has been a decline in infant morality rate?

more infants are surviving
parents have fewer children

12

what is the expected cultural number of constant births supposed to be by 2041

800,000 per year

13

how many births per year were there in 1900?

29 per thousand births per year

14

how many births were recorded in 2014

12 per thousand per year

15

define death rate

the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year

16

what have the number of births halved from since 1900

in 1900 there were 19 thousand deaths which has now dropped to 8.9 thousand deaths by 2012

17

what does Tranter believe the decline in death rate since 1850 to 1970 is due to?

infectious diseases

18

what was the main causes of death in 1950?

heart disease and cancer

19

according to McKeown what is the reason for the reduction in death rates?

improved nutrition

20

what does Mckeowns death fail to explain?

why the deaths rose from some diseases at the time of improved nutrition

21

what does Harper believe has led to the greatest decrease in deaths?

reduced smoking

22

what fraction of adults were obese in 2012?

1/4

23

how many deaths did smog lead to in 1952?

4,000

24

define life expectancy

how long on average a person born in a give year can expect to live

25

in 1990 what was the life expectancy for men and women?

50-men
57-women

26

in 2013 what was the life expectancy for men and women?

90.7-men
94-women

27

how many years earlier are those from poorer area of the UK to die according to Walker?

7 years earlier than those in rich areas

28

immigration

movement into society

29

emigration

movement out

30

net migration

the difference between the number of immigrant and emigrants

31

when did black immigrants start coming from the carribean?

1950

32

when were nationality and immigration acts put in?

1962

33

for how long did the nationality and immigration acts restrict non white immigration?

from 1962 to 1990

34

by 1980 what proportion of non whites accounted for all immigrants?

1/4

35

by 2011 ethnic minority groups accounted for how much of the population?

14%

36

where did most immigrants come from?

the european union

37

from 2000-2013 how much did international migration increase by?

33%

38

what do citizens have full citizenship rights of not?

citizens have full citizenship rights

39

how are Denizens viewed?

they are privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state

40

what are Helots?

the most exploited group

41

what % of nurses in the UK are migrant?

40%

42

what is increased life expectancy, declining infant morality and declining fertility caused by?

ageing population

43

what dos Hirsch predict by 2041?

there will be more 78 year olds than 5 year olds

44

what are the effects of the ageing population?

older people retire = more services needed

one person pensioner households = not enough housing for other people

the dependency ration all increase

45

define ageism

age status' are socially constructed. negative stereotyping often portrays the old as incompetent and a burden

46

why does Phillipson believe old people are no longer use to capitalism?

because they are no longer productive

47

what does postmodern society believe the elderly become?

a market for a range of goods and services

48

does Hunt believe about age?

our age no longer determines who we are or how we live

49

what % of age discrimination has age concern (2012) reported?

29%

50

define globalisation

the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and barriers are disappearing

51

what has resulted in the rise of globalisation?

media
tech
global markets
communication

52

what does Vertovkc say about migrants?

they now come from a much wider range of countries

53

what is a hybrid identity

made up of 2 or more different sources

54

define hierarchical identities

ranking themselves in terms of nationality

55

what did Eade find out about 2nd generation muslims?

they created hierarchical identities in Britain.

56

what does Erikesen believe about globalisation?

it has created diverse migration patterns

57

what does Erikesen say translation identities is?

people see themselves belonging to more than one culture

58

what is the 1st state policy to immigration?

assimilation

59

what is the aim of assimilation

to get immigrants to adopt to the language, values and customs of the culture

60

what is a limitation of assimilation?

transnation migrants with hybrid identities may not be willing to abandon their culture

61

what is multiculturalism

accepting that migrants may with to retain a separate culture identity

62

what are the two types of diversity Eriksen introduces?

shallow diversity
deep diversity

63

shallow diversity

regarding chicken tikka masala as Britains national dish is acceptable

64

depp diversity

arranged mariages or the veiling of women is not accepted tot he state