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Flashcards in Demography Deck (40)
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State the difference between birth rate and Total Fertility Rate

Birth rate - How many babies are born per 1000 of the population per year

Total fertility rate - the average number of children a woman will have during her fertile years


Define infant mortality rate

Number of babies that die before their first birthday per 1000 of the population per year


Define death rate

Number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year


State the difference between emigration and immigration

Emigration - movement of people out of of a country or society

Immigration - movement of people into a country or society


What is the dependency ratio?

The proportion of people working and paying taxes compared to those who are dependent on the state


When was the lowest birth rate in the UK?



How does the position of women affect birth rate?

Focusing on careers = having babies later or never

Contraception and abortion = women can have sex without having to have children

More advanced education = women having children later


Give 3 other factors that have decreased the birth rate?

Declining infant mortality rate
Child centredness
Children being an economic burden


How much does one child cost 2 parents up to age 18?



What effect does declining birth rate have on the dependency ratio and the family?

Dependency ratio - short term improvement as there is fewer dependent children but in the long term there will be a smaller workforce

Family - if families are more child centred then that will lead to more dual earner families to afford the cost


Give 3 birth trends in 2018

More older women having children
More single parent families
More children born out of wedlock


What did Thomas McKeown say was the reason for decline in deaths?

Improved nutrition


What was a criticism of this view?

That it did not explain why women live longer when they generally ate less


What did Harper say was the main reason for the decline in deaths? Also what did they say was going to be the biggest cause of deaths in the future?

The decline in smoking. But that obesity has replaced it as the biggest risk


Outline 3 more reasons for the decline in death rate

Medical improvements
Decline in infectious diseases
Public health measures like better housing


Explain the class differences in life expectancy

Higher class people live longer than working class people due to a higher standard of living, healthier diet options and less stress related to money


Why do women live longer than men?

They do less manually intensive jobs, take fewer risks, drink less and take more visits to the doctors


Explain regional differences in life expectancy with an example

The south generally have a longer life expectancy than the north - Chelsea life expectancy for men is 85 whereas in Glasgow it’s 71


Give 3 strengths of an ageing population

Provide childcare for grandchildren
Volunteer in the community
Create the ‘Grey Market’ of pensioner products


Give 3 weaknesses of an ageing population

Workforce shrinks so there is less economic growth
Put strain on the healthcare services
Unpaid family members have to care for them


What percentage of households are pensioners living alone?



What is the feminisation of old age?

The fact that over 75s are twice as likely to be women


What is meant by the socially constructed ‘Age Problem’?

That traditionally old people were respected and had high status whereas now they portrayed by the media as incompetent and a burden


How would Marxists interpret ageism?

That old people are marginalised because they do not help capitalism and then family members have to care for them


Which postmodernist states that now we have more freedom to create our own identities through consumption of things like anti ageing products?



What kind of inequalities are there between the elderly?

Class - Middle class have bigger pensions and savings
Gender - women face both ageism and sexism eg “old hag”


What was Hirsch’s suggestion for the age problem?

Policy needs to be put in place to keep old people working into their retirement


Define migration

The movement of people between areas and societies either internally or internationally


Define net migration

The difference between the number of people emigrating and the number of people immigrating


Give 3 push factors

Lack of jobs