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Define social institutions with 2 examples

Organised social arrangements like Media and Education


Define social class

A group of people that share a similar location, income and occupation


Define marginalised

People who are pushed to the outskirts of society which decreases life chances


Define norm with an example

Social expectations that govern our behaviour in certain situations eg queueing


Define value with an example

General beliefs which inform society what is important in life eg cheating on a partner


Define role with an example

How someone who occupies a particular status is expected to behave eg student


What is the difference between ascribed and achieved status?

Ascribed is permanent and usually something you’re born with eg ethnicity

Achieved is a position gained through your own efforts eg postman


Define micro theories

Believe society is constructed through small scale interactions and that individuals have free will to construct their own views on society


Define macro theories

Believe society is constructed through large scale institutions and individuals have no control over how they impact our lives


What is the difference between conflict and consensus theories?

Consensus is a positive view that believes that institutions teach us norms and values to bring us together

Conflict is a negative view that believes that institutions teach us norms and values designed to divide and exploit certain groups


Define socialisation

The process in which an individual learns the culture of the society they live in


What’s the difference between primary and secondary socialisation?

Primary - takes place in the home in early childhood and teaches morals, rules and gives us role models

Secondary - is through external agencies can be impersonal through the media to an audience or interpersonal which is between people - teaches trends, social interaction and employment


What is the organic analogy?

The belief that society is like the human body as every part important and if institution needs help then another will step in


What society’s 3 functional prerequisites?

Social order - shares norms and values
Social solidarity - the bond between all individuals in society
Value consensus - agreeing on what is right and wrong


What type of theory is functionalism

Macro and consensus


Define capitalism and communism

Capitalism - A system where the country’s industry is controlled by businesses for profit rather than by the state

Communism - A system in which all property is owned by the state where everyone contributes and receives according to their needs


What were Karl Marx’s two groups in society?

Bourgeoisie - people who earn enough income from property alone and who own the means for production

Proleteriat - People who have to sell their labour for a wage


Define infrastructure and superstructure

Infrastructure - Capitalism (economic base of society)

Superstructure - The institutions is society which support capitalism


Explain surplus value and exploitation

Surplus value - When workers make more product than what is needed to pay their wages the extra is profit for employers

Therefore workers do not get the wage that is proportionate to the amount of work they do which is exploitation


What is a dominant ideology?

The belief system which is ingrained by institutions in society for example religion is created to promise workers an afterlife to look forward to


What did Karl Marx call religion?

The opium of the people


What is false consciousness?

When people are brainwashed into thinking that the world is fair and just and therefore do not fight for their own interests


What kind of theory is Marxism?

Macro and Conflict


What do feminists believe?

That men and women should be treated equally in all areas of society


Define patriarchy

The male dominance in society


Define the 3 strands of feminism

Liberal feminism - believe in using legislation to bring about equal rights and also stand up for the rights of men which are affected by the patriarchy

Marxist feminism - believe women experience double exploitation due to social class and gender and see capitalism as the issue

Radical feminism - believe male dominance exploits women in every area of society and that men in positions of power are the problem and should be replaced by women


What kind of theory is feminism?

Macro and Conflict


What do interactionists believe?

That how people act in face to face interactions is in accordance to how they define the people and situation


What does labelling mean?

That how people are defined by their peers affects how they act


What are the two outcomes of labelling?

A self fulfilling prophecy or a self negating prophecy