Flashcards in Introduction Deck (34)
Define social institutions with 2 examples
Organised social arrangements like Media and Education
Define social class
A group of people that share a similar location, income and occupation
People who are pushed to the outskirts of society which decreases life chances
Define norm with an example
Social expectations that govern our behaviour in certain situations eg queueing
Define value with an example
General beliefs which inform society what is important in life eg cheating on a partner
Define role with an example
How someone who occupies a particular status is expected to behave eg student
What is the difference between ascribed and achieved status?
Ascribed is permanent and usually something you’re born with eg ethnicity
Achieved is a position gained through your own efforts eg postman
Define micro theories
Believe society is constructed through small scale interactions and that individuals have free will to construct their own views on society
Define macro theories
Believe society is constructed through large scale institutions and individuals have no control over how they impact our lives
What is the difference between conflict and consensus theories?
Consensus is a positive view that believes that institutions teach us norms and values to bring us together
Conflict is a negative view that believes that institutions teach us norms and values designed to divide and exploit certain groups
The process in which an individual learns the culture of the society they live in
What’s the difference between primary and secondary socialisation?
Primary - takes place in the home in early childhood and teaches morals, rules and gives us role models
Secondary - is through external agencies can be impersonal through the media to an audience or interpersonal which is between people - teaches trends, social interaction and employment
What is the organic analogy?
The belief that society is like the human body as every part important and if institution needs help then another will step in
What society’s 3 functional prerequisites?
Social order - shares norms and values
Social solidarity - the bond between all individuals in society
Value consensus - agreeing on what is right and wrong
What type of theory is functionalism
Macro and consensus
Define capitalism and communism
Capitalism - A system where the country’s industry is controlled by businesses for profit rather than by the state
Communism - A system in which all property is owned by the state where everyone contributes and receives according to their needs
What were Karl Marx’s two groups in society?
Bourgeoisie - people who earn enough income from property alone and who own the means for production
Proleteriat - People who have to sell their labour for a wage
Define infrastructure and superstructure
Infrastructure - Capitalism (economic base of society)
Superstructure - The institutions is society which support capitalism
Explain surplus value and exploitation
Surplus value - When workers make more product than what is needed to pay their wages the extra is profit for employers
Therefore workers do not get the wage that is proportionate to the amount of work they do which is exploitation
What is a dominant ideology?
The belief system which is ingrained by institutions in society for example religion is created to promise workers an afterlife to look forward to
What did Karl Marx call religion?
The opium of the people
What is false consciousness?
When people are brainwashed into thinking that the world is fair and just and therefore do not fight for their own interests
What kind of theory is Marxism?
Macro and Conflict
What do feminists believe?
That men and women should be treated equally in all areas of society
The male dominance in society
Define the 3 strands of feminism
Liberal feminism - believe in using legislation to bring about equal rights and also stand up for the rights of men which are affected by the patriarchy
Marxist feminism - believe women experience double exploitation due to social class and gender and see capitalism as the issue
Radical feminism - believe male dominance exploits women in every area of society and that men in positions of power are the problem and should be replaced by women
What kind of theory is feminism?
Macro and Conflict
What do interactionists believe?
That how people act in face to face interactions is in accordance to how they define the people and situation
What does labelling mean?
That how people are defined by their peers affects how they act