List the 3 components of Gingival Tissue
- Marginal (free)
- Interdental Papilla
What gingival tissue adheres tightly to the alveolar bone?
What is the Interdental Papilla attached to?
To bone as well as the gum tissue found between teeth
What is the mucogingival junction?
The line between the firmer and pinker attached gingiva and the movable and redder alveolar mucosa is the scallop-shaped mucogingival junction
What are the 3 layers of the tooth?
- Extremely hard outer enamel layer
- Moderately hard dentin layer
What are the 4 types of teeth?
What are primary teeth?
Deciduous, baby teeth. 1st dentition, 10 maxillary and 10 mandibular.
What are secondary teeth?
Permanent, adult teeth. 16 maxillary and 16 mandibular.
Permanent teeth that replace primary teeth. All teeth except for permanent molars.
Define mixed dentition.
Transitional dentition. Both primary and secondary teeth are present. Usually between ages 5-12.
What are the functions of each teeth?
Incisors - cut and bite
Cuspids - cut, tear, and grasp
Premolars - tear and grasp
Molars - grind/pulverize
What does the periodontium consists of?
- Periodontal ligament
- Alveolar bone
What does enamel consist of?
96% inorganic (calcium hydroxyapatite crystals)
What is enamel produced by?
Made by ameloblast cells
What does dentin consist of?
70% inorganic (calcium hydroxyapatite.)
20% organic (collagen, mucopolysaccharide ground substance)
What is dentin produced by?
Laid down as dentinal tubules by odontoblasts
What are the 4 types of dentin?
What is mantle dentin?
the outermost layer of dentin and it is the first dentin formed by the odontoblasts
What is cirumpulpal dentin?
layer around the outer pulpal wall
What is peritubular dentin?
found in the walls of the dentinl tubules
What is intertubular dentin?
found between the dentinal tubules
What are the classifications of Dentin?
- Primary - forms the body of the tooth. (mantle and circumpulpal dentin)
- Secondary - forms only after tooth eruption. (narrow band that borders the pulp)
- Tertiary or reparative - forms only in response to trauma to the pulp (caries, attrition, abrasion, restorative procedures)
What does Cementum consists of?
What is cementum produced by?
Cementoblasts lay down cementum along the root surface
What is the main function of cementum?
attachment site for PDL
Where is acellular cementum?
layed down on the cervical 1/2 of the root. (it cannot regenerate)
Where is cellular cementum?
layed down on the lower 1/2 of root.
What are 5 characteristics of acellular cementum?
- first layer(s) deposited
- At least one layer over all the root, with many layers near the cervical one third
- formed at a slower rate
- No embedded cemetocytes
- Width constant over time
What are 5 characteristics of cellular cementum?
- formed after acellular layer(s)
- layered over acellular, mainly in apical one third, especially interradicular region
- formed at a faster rate
- embedded cementocytes
- layer sometimes added over time
List characteristics of pulp
- innermost tissue of the tooth
- is connective tissue with all the components of such a tissue
- includes intercellular substances, tissue fluid, cells, lymphatics, vascular system, nerves and fibers.
What are 3 functions of pulp?
- Nutritive: it keeps the organic components of the surrounding mineralized tissue supplied with moisture and nutrients
- Sensory: extremes in temperatures, pressure or trauma to the dentin or pulp are perceived as pain
- Protective: the formation of reparative or secondary dentin (by the odontoblasts as they remain in the outer pupal wall)
What is the pulp chamber?
The area where the large mass of pulp is contained. The shape corresponds directly to the overall shape of the tooth. The pulp chamber has 2 main divisions: coronal pulp and radicular pulp.
Where is the coronal pulp? What does it create?
Located in the crown of the tooth. Creates the pulp horns.
Where is the radicular pulp?
Located in the root of the tooth. It is also called the pulp canal.
What is a proximal contact?
Where crowns of adjacent teeth touch in the interproximal space on the same arch. Provides stabilization and anchorage for teeth.
What is the contact point?
The contact areas on cusp tips or crowns that contact the opposing arch.
What are Embrasure/Spillways?
When 2 teeth meet in the same arch spaces are created due to the curvatures of the teeth (V shaped spaces are created)
What are the general rules of Embrasures?
- Embrasures become wider anterior to posterior
- In the anterior, facial and lingual are equal
- In posteriors lingual embrasure spaces are wider than buccal because the teeth are narrower on the lingual
What is the height of contour?
The most convex portion of crown. It helps deflect food so trauma to soft tissue is minimized, while allowing stimulation to keep soft tissue healthy.