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Flashcards in Depressive disorders Deck (20):

Prevalence of depression

17%. Most common Psychiatric disorder


Males vs female for depression

two fold increase in females


What is major depressive disorder

Must have depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
All symptoms must be there nearly everyday except - suicide ideation or thoughts of death which only need to be recurrent.
Do excluded if symptoms cause by bereavement or psychotic symptoms are present in the absence of mood symptoms


Difference between depression and personality disorder

Depression is an episodic state that should return to based line with treatment where personality disorder it would always be the same.


DSM5 Criteria for depression

A) either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure over a 2 week period with at least 5 of the following
- depressed mood all day every day
- ↓Interest or pleasure in all everyday
- wt and appetite changes
- Insomnia or hypersomnia
- Psychomotor agitation or retardation
- Fatigue
- Feeling of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt
- ↓concentration or indecisiveness
- Recurrent suicide ideation or thought of death.
B)impair function
c)not due to substance or medical condition
D) not better explain by other DDX
E)no manic or hypomanic


Mx of major depression Mild

care providers by GP
Moderated online or low intensity CBT or mild
Online - mindspot,
Low intensity CBT - know the principles
understanding feeling and thoughts and behaviours,
Monitoring for unhelpful or unrealistic thought
Changing thoughts to be more realistic by practice
Scheduling in fun activities
DBT - directive behaviour therapy
Distress tolerance
emotional regulation
Interpersonal effectiveness


Mx of major depression Moderate

Psychotherapy - CBT/IPT, consider SSRI
Clinical practice guideline for adolescence and youth and then everyone else
CBT first
SSRI - evidence that they are significantly better especially fluoxetine- need to know for exam
tricyclic should bot be used


Mx for severe depression

Psychotherapy and SSRI


lifestyle changes for depression

Healthy eating
control your work
Sleep well - sleep hygiene
Reduced alcohol and other drugs


Explain Fluoxetine to a patient

Availability: peak 4-6 hours
Half-life: 1-6 days (accumulation risk)
SE: headache, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, rash, hypomania activation, GI upset, impotence, anorgasmia, wt loss, rare serious skin sensitivity in children
CI: MAOI within 5 wk, Pimozide
Interactions: other antidepressants, some antipsychotics, anti diabetic inc. insulin, drugs affecting platelet function, highly protein bound e.g. warfarin
Precaution; pre: screen for hypomania, post: for emergent suicidality.
Dose: Dep: initial 20mg, max 80mg, OCD 20/60mg


How to determine severity of depression

Mild - symptoms
Moderate symptoms but not suicidal
Severe - suicidal ? or greater impaired life.


What to rule out when thinking depression

Other psychological illness
- Neuro - parkinson, stroke, MS, space occupying lesion, alzheimer's, Epilepsy, cereovascular disease and tumour.
- endo - Cushing, thyroid
- Auto - SLE
- Infection - HIV, Lyme disease, TB, sphysilis, mononucleosis
Steroids, NSAID, Beta blocker *methodopa, interferon gamma, sex hormones, alcohol, opioids, cannibus. cardiac drugs, antiHTN, sedative, hypnotics, antipsychotics, anti epileptics, antiparkinsonian drugs, analgesics, anti bacterials and antineoplastics


Ix to include in the work up for depression

FBC, TFT, LFT, U&E, UDS, ECG, CT brain


How to differentiate depression from grief

Varies from sad to neutral.


Epidemiology of depression

10-15% prevalence
F>M 2:1
Onset late 20-30
10% of severe depression goes on to complete suicide.


What is Dysthymia/persistent depressive disorder

I consistent state of depressed mood there whole life.
A- depressed mood for most day for 2yrs
B- Presence of 2 of the following
- Poor appetite or overeating
- Insomnia or hypersomnie
- Low energy or fatigue
- Low self esteem
- Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions
- Feeling hopelessness
C- Symptoms free time of of


Criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder

A - at least 5 symptoms for majority of cycles that onset a 1week before menses and improves to after onset and asymptomatic postmenses
B - 1 or more of these
- labile affect
- Irritability or anger or conflict
- Depressed mood, hopelessness or self deprecating thoughts
- Anxiety, tension, or feeling on edge.
C- 1 or more of the following (B+C= 5in total)
- ↓Interest*not finished.


Tx of Persistent depressive disorder

Cognitive therapy - Negative thoughts and learned helplessness
Insight oriented psychotherapy - 1st line. Dresses pt understanding of how they try to gratify an excessive need for outside approval to counter low esteem and a harsh superego
Interpersonal therapy + antidepressant. Coping with stress and decrease depressive symptoms. Improve self-esteem.
Family and group therapies
Pharmacotherapy - SSRI and bupropion.


DDX Dysthmia

Major depressive disorder
Recurrent brief depressive disorder
Double depression - major depression and dysthymia
Alcohol and substance - cocaine, marijuana


Mx of depression

Rule out medical condition: TFT, FBC, B12, Folate, IS, EBV, Drug screen, U&E.
Determine severity - K10, Dass 21
Lifestyle: stop smoking, nutrient, stop alcohol, physical exercise, sleep, Sun, substance, socialise eg menshed, Headspace
Psychotherapy - CBT - challenge autonegativ thoughts, eCBT