Derm 1 - Basic terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Derm 1 - Basic terminology Deck (30):
1

Define macule:

Small flat area of altered colour

2

Define patch:

Large flat area of altered colour/texture

3

Define papule:

Solid raised lesion < 0.5 cm in diameter

4

Define nodule:

Solid raised lesion >0.5 cm in diameter

5

Define plaque:

Palpable scaling raised lesion >0.5 cm in diameter

6

Define vesicle:

Raised, clear fluid-filled <0.5 cm in diameter

7

Define bulla:

Raised, clear fluid-filled lesion >0.5 cm in diameter

8

Define pustule:

Pus-containing lesion <0.5 cm in diameter

9

Define abscess:

Localised accumulation of pus in dermis or subcutaneous tissues

10

Define wheal:

Transient raised lesion due to dermal oedema

11

Define excoriation:

Loss of epidermis following trauma

12

Define lichenification:

Well-defined roughening of skin with accentuation of skin markings

13

In which condition is excoriation and lichenification commonly seen?

Eczema

14

Define ulcer:

Loss of epidermis and dermis

15

Which conditions are associated with clubbing?

- Cyanotic heart disease
- Cirrhosis
- Coeliac disease
- IBD
- Lung cancer
- Bronchiectasis
- Lung abscess
- Empyema
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Cystic fibrosis
- Asbestosis
- Mesothelioma

16

Which condition is associated with koilonychia?

Iron-deficiency anaemia

17

Which conditions are associated with oncholysis?

- Trauma
- Psoriasis
- Fungal nail infection
- Hyperthyroidism

18

Which conditions are associated with nail pitting?

- Psoriasis
- Alopecia areata
- Eczema

19

What are the 6 main functions of skin?

1) Protective barrier
2) Temperature regulation
3) Sensation
4) Vit D synthesis
5) Immunosurveillance
6) Appearance

20

What are the 4 main cell types in the epidermis?

1) Keratinocytes
2) Langerhans' cells
3) Melanocytes
4) Merkel cells

21

Which cells in the epidermis contain specialised nerve endings for sensation?

Merkel cells

22

What is the function of Langerhans' cells in the epidermis?

Present antigens and activate T-lymphocytes for immune protection

23

What are the 4 layers in the epidermis?

1) Stratum corneum
2) Stratum granulosum
3) Stratum spinosum
4) Stratum basale

24

In which layer of the epidermis do keratinocytes lose their nuclei?

Stratum granulosum

25

What amount of emollients should someone with psoriasis be using per month?

500g tub/month

26

What is the function of emollients?

Rehydrate skin and re-establish lipid layer

27

Give me a mild, moderate, potent and very potent topical corticosteroid:

Mild - hydrocortisone
Moderate - Clobetasone
Potent - Betamethasone
V potent - Clobetasol

28

What % hydrocortisone should be used on the face if necessary?

1% hydrocortisone

29

How would you advise the application of topical corticosteroids?

Finger-tip dose should be enough to cover 2 hands.
Apply thinly, for shortest length of time

30

What are some local side effects of topical corticosteroids?

- Skin atrophy/thinning
- Striae
- Telangiectasia
- Acne
- Allergic contact dermatitis