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Flashcards in Derm Glossary Deck (40):
1

Acantholysis

microscopic term
detachment of keratinocytes from each other due to loss of intercellular contacts. This often is associated with the cell assuming a spherical shape, i.e., a round profile in sections. This can occur in both tumors (acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma) or blistering disorders (pemphigus).

2

Acanthosis

microscopic term

increase in keratinocyte population of spinous layer with thickening of the epidermis; may be papillomatous or psoriasiform

3

Adventitial dermis

microscopic term

the investment of fine collagen fibers and delicate blood and lymphatic vessels which surround the epidermal appendages. The papillary dermis is continuous with the adventitial dermis as the appendages penetrate through the papillary dermis and enter into the reticular dermis

4

Apoptosis

microscopic term

a general process of cell death as individual cell necrosis; in skin, it often leads to a residual body containing many keratin filaments, which resemble amyloid. The residual bodies are often called "colloid bodies" (ex. lichen planus).

5

Annular

distribution term

grouped (clustered) as round rings

6

Arciform

distribution term

grouped (clustered) as incomplete rings, arcs

7

Ballooning Degeneration

Microscopic term

intracellular edema with cellular swelling. This is often secondary to viral injury or nutritional deficiency (ex. herpes simplex or zoster).

8

Bulle

Gross descriptive term

a circumscribed lesion, greater than 5 mm. in diameter, that is elevated and contains fluid. Also called "blister".

9

Crust

Gross descriptive term

dried serum, blood, or pus on the surface. Also called a "scab".

10

Dermis

Gross + microscopic descriptive term

the collagenous layer between the epidermis and subcutaneous layer. See also papillary, reticular, and adventitial dermis.

11

Dyskeratosis

microscopic term

cell death associated with premature keratinization below the level of the stratum granulosum

12

Erosion

Gross descriptive term

a moist, circumscribed, usually depressed lesion that results from loss of all or a portion of the viable epidermis; may heal without scarring

13

Excoriation

Gross descriptive term

traumatic erosion or ulcer which often is linear, e.g., a deep scratch

14

Exocytosis

microscopic term

emigration of inflammatory or neoplastic cells into the epidermis.

15

Herpetiform

distribution term

grouped as clusters of vesicles

16

Hypergranulosis

microscopic term

increase in thickness of the granular layer

17

Hyperkeratosis

microscopic term

increased thickness of stratum corneum, whether by normal or abnormal keratinocytes

18

Lichenification

Gross descriptive term

thickened skin, with accentuated skin markings

19

Linear

distribution term

in a line, continuous or broken; may be secondary to trauma, or follow vessels or nerves. (F1) shows a poison-ivy-like lesion of contact dermatitis in a linear distribution

20

Macule

Gross descriptive term

a circumscribed, flat lesion differing in color from the surrounding skin; may be of any size.

21

Melanophage

distribution term

macrophage which has ingested melanin pigment lost from the melanocytes or keratinocytes.

22

Nodule

Gross descriptive term

a palpable, solid, round or ellipsoidal lesion. Usually more than 1 cm. in diameter, but may be smaller. May be deep in the dermis or subcutis, or be superficial

23

Orthokeratosis

microscopic term

process of normal keratinization which leads to the production of a stratum corneum composed of anucleate squames

24

Papillary dermis

microscopic term

the portion of the dermis that extends from the basement membrane down to and including the superficial vascular plexus. It contains finer collagen bundles and elastin fibers than the reticular dermis.

25

Papillomatosis

microscopic term

increase in keratinocytes with formation of projections from the surface of the skin, i.e. papillae; typical example is a wart.

26

Papule

Gross descriptive term

a small, solid, elevated lesion, less than 1 cm. in diameter, usually superficial and mostly projecting from the surface.

27

Patch

Gross descriptive term

a large macule or large thin plaque

28

Plaque

Gross descriptive term

a mesa-like elevation that occupies a relatively large surface area (more than 1 cm.). These may be formed by the coalescence of papules

29

Poikiloderma

Gross descriptive term

usually a plaque (less often a macule) that has the combination of atrophy, telangiectasia, and pigmentary alteration (hyperpigmentation and/or
Hypopigmentation ).

30

Polycyclic

distribution term

grouped (clustered) as irregular rings

31

Psoriasiform Epidermal Hyperplasia

microscopic term

increase in keratinocytes with elongation of rete ridges and elongation of dermal papillae; typical example is psoriasis.

32

Pustule

Gross descriptive term

a circumscribed, raised lesion containing pus.

33

Random

distribution term

random distribution of lesions on the skin

34

Reticular dermis

microscopic term

the portion of the dermis that extends from the superficial vascular plexus down to the subcutis. It contains larger collagen bundles and elastin fibers than the papillary dermis.

35

Scale

Gross descriptive term

dry, horny, platelike excrescence, usually composed of abnormally shed or accumulated stratum corneum.

36

Spongiosis

microscopic term

widening of the interspaces between keratinocytes due to edema fluid without detachment of cells from each other, except when vesicles form, (edema in the epidermis).

37

Ulcer

Gross descriptive term

a lesion in which there has been destruction of the epidermis and which goes into the papillary or reticular dermis or even deeper; usually heals with scarring.

38

Vacuolar Change (vacuolization)

microscopic term

the formation of vacuoles within cells. This term is used often in reference to changes in the basal keratinocytes (ex. Lupus, erythema multiforme)

39

Vesicle

Gross descriptive term

a circumscribed lesion, 5 mm. in diameter or less, that is elevated and contains fluid. Also called "blister"

40

Wheal

Gross descriptive term

a rounded or flat-topped elevated lesion that characteristically is evanescent, disappearing within hours; also called an urticarial lesion or "hive".