Dermatology Flashcards Preview

Julia PCP2 > Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (52):
1

When might you see lichenified skin?

As a result of chronic itching of eczema

2

What is the ABCDE for taking a history of a skin lesion?

A - asymmetry
B - border irregularity
C - colour variation
D - diameter
E - evolution over time

3

What is a macule?

A flat area of altered skin colour (impalpable)

4

What is a papule?

An elevated, palpable skin lesion

5

What is a nodule?

An elevated, palpable skin lesions >5mm

6

What is a vesicle?

A fluid-filled blister

7

Palpable purpura are characteristic of what group of conditions?

Vasculitides

8

How does tinea corporis typically present?

Scaly, annular lesions on the body that are itchy & have an area of central clearing

9

What is the management of tinea?

-Topical agent, eg/ imidazole or terbinafine creams
-Oral griseofulvin for extensive infections
-Tinea of the scalp needs prolonged treatment with oral antifungals

10

What are some specific treatments of molluscum contagiosum?

-Topical irritants - eg/ salicylic acid
-Topical immunostimulants
-Destructive methods

11

Which pathogen usually causes folliculitis?

Staph. aureus

12

Which pathogen usually causes impetigo?

Staph. aureus

13

What is the treatment of impetigo?

Anti-staph antibiotics: flucloxacillin or cephalexin

14

Which organism commonly causes cellulitis?

Grp A Streptococcus

15

What are 3 features of eczema on history?

-Itchy rash
-Located in flexures
-Worse in winter
-Pt may also have asthma & hayfever
-Family Hx of eczema

16

What are some of the triggers of eczema?

-Stress & anxiety
-Irritants (soap)
-Allergy
-Heat
-Infection
-Genetic predisposition (Filaggrin mutation)

17

What does discoid eczema look like?

Annular disc-like patches of eczema (mimics psoriasis & tinea)

18

What is asteatotic eczema?

Eczema that is worst on the front of the legs of elderly patients, and flares up in winter

19

What is pompholyx?

Vesicular hand & foot eczema

20

What is the treatment of diffuse erythrodermic eczema?

Intense topicals & systemic immunosuppression

21

What is eczema herpeticum & how is it treated?

Secondary infection of eczematous skin with HSV virus. Tx: systemic antiviral treatment + opthalmology assessment if eye involvement

22

What are the lifestyle modifications for atopic eczema?

-Avoid soap
-Regular emollient
-Warm, not hot showers

23

What are specific eczema treatments?

-Topical steroids
-Non-steroid anti-inflammatory creams (eg/ pimecrolimus)
-Treat suspected infections with antibiotics
-Phototherapy with UVB
-Systemic immunosuppression

24

What are 3 features of eczema on examination?

-Erythematous, ill-defined scaly patches
-Rash in flexural areas
-Lichenified skin in chronic eczema

25

What are 3 features of psoriasis on history?

-Mostly on extensor surfaces
-Symmetrical involvement
-Well-demarcated plaques
-Some itch
-Gradually worsening
-Better with UV exposure

26

What are 3 features of psoriasis on examination?

-On extensor surfaces
-Well demarcated plaques
-Silvery-white scale
-Very erythematous/salmon pink
-Scalp involvement

27

How does flexural & genital psoriasis differ from typical psoriasis?

Flexural & genital psoriasis is less scaly, and has a 'glazed' appearance (often confused with tinea)

28

What is post-streptococcal guttate psoriasis?

Occurs 1-2 weeks after Strep infection - sudden onset of small plaque psoriasis

29

What are the treatment options for psoriasis?

-Topical - steroids, tars, calcipotriol, dithranol, emollients
-Phototherapy - narrowband UVB treatment
-Systemic - oral acitretin, methotrexate, cyclosporin A, biologic agents

30

What are the 4 components of acne?

1. Abnormal keratinization of sebaceous duct
2. Colonization with bacteria
3. Increase in androgen levels leading to increased sebum production
4. Inflammation

31

What are the topical treatments for acne?

Keratolytics, comedolytics, anti-bacterials

32

What are some systemic treatments for acne?

Antibiotics (doxycycline, minocycline), anti-androgenic OCP (females), systemic retionoids (isotretinoin)

33

How long is the treatment course of systemic isotretinoin for acne?

6-12 months (specialist use only)

34

What are some of the adverse effects of systemic isotretinoin?

Teratogenic, dryness, photosensitivity, controversial association with depression

35

What are some triggers of vascular rosacea?

Sunlight, alcohol, hot foods, spicy foods, emotion, heat, topical steroids

36

What are some clinical features of rabies?

-Spares face & head in adults
-Intensely itchy rash, starting on hands & feet
-Itch is worse at night
-Spreads to genital areas, generalised body rash
-Incubation period 4-6 weeks

37

What are the general management considerations for scabies?

-Treat all close contacts
-Treat index case at diagnosis & again at 1 week
-Post-scabetic itch can take weeks to settle

38

What is the topical treatment of scabies?

-5% permethrin cream from neck down

39

Which is the most commonly diagnosed skin cancer?

BCC (67%)

40

What are the 2 precursor lesions to SCC?

-Solar (actinic) keratosis
-Bowen's disease (SCC in situ)

41

What is the typical description of an SCC?

Erythematous, hyperkeratotic papule or nodule that may bleed or ulcerate & may be tender

42

What is the typical description of a BCC?

Pearly nodules often containing prominent, dilated subepidermal blood vessels (telangiectasias), may bleed

43

Which non-pigmentous skin cancer is more likely to metastasize?

SCC

44

How are solar keratoses described?

Erythematous, scaly lesions commonly found on the dorsum of hands

45

What is the treatment of solar keratoses?

Options include:
-Cryotherapy
-Topical
-Surgical excision

46

What are some features of Bowen's disease?

-Full thickness epidermal dysplasia, with no invasion
-Commonly seen in lower limbs
-Risk of malignant transformation to SCC is 3-5%
-Often asymptomatic, but can be itchy, painful or may bleed

47

What is a benign junctional naevus?

A naevus located at the epidermal side of the dermo-epidermal junction

48

What is a benign compound naevus?

A naevus located in the epidermis & the dermis

49

What is a benign intradermal naevus?

An intradermal naevus - usually pale in colour

50

What are some features of a benign mole?

-Small
-Evenly coloured
-Regular edges
-Symmetrical
-Does not change with time

51

Name 4 risk factors for melanoma.

-Multiple dysplastic naevi (>5)
-Past history of melanoma
-Family Hx
-History of blistering sunburn
-Type 1 skin
-Freckling
-Red hair
-Immunosuppression

52

What are some features of melanoma?

-Itch
-Increasing size
-Irregular border
-Colour variation
-Inflammation
-Crusting or bleeding