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Flashcards in Destroyer Bio Deck (27):
1

Ebola

-virus
-an incubation period of 2-41 Days before symptoms occur
-death rate is as high as 90% in africa
-Ebola infects WBC's such as monocytes and macrophages along with fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells which release proteins that can cause clots in the bloodstream
-Liver cells are also targeted
-blocks interferon release
-can replicate very quickly
-spreads through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or tissues
-RNA virus

2

Hypodermis

is the subcutaneous tissue which is below the dermis containing larger blood vessels than the dermis

3

Dermis cell

stable thus can retains something like tattoo ink

4

Stratums

are part of the epidermis

5

Largest internal Organ?

liver

6

Largest organ in the entire body?

skin

7

Dinosaurs

appeared about 230 million years ago during the Triassic Period and became extinct around 65 million years ago
-do not have hair
-current theory that caused extinction points toward an asteroid hitting the Earth that causes weather changes from fire and dust.

8

Cytokinesis in plants vs animals

animals: cleavage furrow forms
plants: cell plate is formed and a new cell wall forms between the two cell plate membranes

*The formation of a cleavage furrow is the first sign of cleavage

9

Actin and Myosin

are involved in cytokinesis and muscle contraction

10

Cri Du Chat Syndrome

-due to deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5
-associated with congenital problems such as abnormal development of facial structures, gastrointestinal malformations, and infants that make crying sounds like a cat meowing
-SYNDROME is due to a partial monosomy which occurs when one of the chromosome is lost!

11

Obligate Aerobes and test tube location

need O2 and gather at the top of the tube since Oxygen is the highest here

12

Obligate Anaerobes and test tube location

at the bottom of the tube since this is where oxygen is present in the least amount

13

Facultative Anaerobes and test tube location

can grow with or without Oxygen, but gather mostly at the top because aerobic respiration produces the most ATP.
-Scattered from the top and bottom but more at the top

14

Microaerophiles and test tube location

Micro-aerobes such as H. Pylori require O2 but are harmed by the high amounts of oxygen thus growth would be at the upper portion but not at the top

15

How does Penecillin affect bacteria?

interfere with the bacteria's ability to synthesize its cell wall
-bacteria are constantly rebuilding their cell walls to maintain structure and function

16

Left and Right Lung

-The left lung has 2 lobes and the right lung has 3 lobes
-the right lung is larger that the left lung
- The left lung has a cardiac notch to allow room for the heart and its vaculature

17

Sensory/afferant neurons

-carry nerve impulses from peripheral body parts to the brain or spinal cord
-closely related with receptor cells located in the skin or sensory organs such as the eye or nose

18

Motor Neuron

-associated with muscles and glands

19

Microarray Technology

allows a researcher to examine many genes and determine which are expressed in a particular cell type
-ALLOWS you to determine gene expression
-DNA microarrays can be used to detect DNA or RNA that may or may not be translated in proteins

20

Monotreme

a mammal that lays eggs

21

What are some examples of monotremes

Ex: Platypuses and echidnas (spiny anteaters)

22

Marsupial

a mammal that completes embryonic development in a pouch
EX: kangaroo

23

Chitin

a polysaccharide containing glucose molecules with nitrogen groups attached--actually a polymer of sugars
-the cell walls of many fungi contain chitin
-forms the exoskeleton of arthropods

24

Sodium Potassium Pump

-the sodium potassium pump is actually an integral protein(changes conformational states)
-this pump actively pumps 3Na+ out of a cell and 2 K+ into a cell against their gradients, thus utilizing ATP
-If a drug such as oubain or digitalis is given, the pump will stop and Na+ will build up inside the cell

25

What valve is the junction of the small and large intestine?

illeocecal valve
-the valve will prevent the contents of the large intestine from entering the small intestine and vice versa

26

Colchicine

-an alkaloid that inhibits the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules
-mitosis would stop if colchicine is present

27

Thyroid Gland

-thyroid hormones contain iodine and cannot be produced without it
-the mammalian thyroid gland contains cells that secrete calcitonin, which lowers calcium levels in the blood
-Thyroxin and Triiodothronine are thyroid hormones containing iodine--these two hormones influence growth, development, and overall metabolic rates
-if radioactive I-131 is ingested with water it will concentrate in the thyroid--method to determine thyroid activity