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Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (40):
1

Sexual Reproduction

-differs from asexual reproduction in that the genetic material of two organisms combine and results in a genetically unique offspring
-occurs via the fusion of two gametes, specialized sex cells produced by each parent

2

What does sexual reproduction require

-the production of functional sex cells or gametes by adult organisms
-the union of these cells (fertilization and conjugation) to form a zygote
-the development of the zygote into another adult, completing the cycle

3

Gonads

specialized organs that the gametes are produced in
-male gonads, the TESTES, produce sperm in the tighly coiled seminiferous tubules
-The female gonads, the OVARIES, produce OOCYTES (EGGS)

4

Hermaphrodites

possess both functional male and female gonads,
-include the hydra and the earthworm

5

Gametogenesis

-the production of functional sex cells
-In males, the process is called SPERMATOGENESIS or sperm production and occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
-In females, the process is called OOGENESIS, or egg production, and occurs in the ovaries

6

Fertilization

the union of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a zygote with a diploid number of chromosomes

7

Internal fertilization

-practiced by terrestrial vertebrates
-provides a direct route for sperm to reach the egg cell
-this increases the chances of fertilization success, and females produce fewer eggs

8

Where are the testes located?

in the SCROTUM

9

scrotum

and external pouch that maintains the testes temp @ 2-4 degrees celsius lower than the body temp--essential for sperm survival

10

What is the passageway for sperm?

-sperm passes the testes through the VAS DEFERENS, to the EJACULATORY DUCT, and then to the URETHRA
-the urethra passes through the penis until it terminates with an external opening at the GLANS of the penis

11

Testes

also the site of production of testosterone

12

testosterone

regulates secondary secondary male sex characteristics including facial and pubic hair, and voice changes

13

Spermatogenesis

sperm production

14

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

occurs at the seminiferous tubules

15

what does the head of the sperm consist of?

the nucleus

16

The purpose of the tail of the sperm

propels the sperm

17

What does the neck of the sperm contain

the mitochondria which provides energy for locomotion

18

Acrosome

-cap like structure derived from the golgi apparatus
-develops over the anterior half of the head
-contains enzymes need to penetrate the tough outer covering of the ovum

19

Where are the ovaries found?

found in the abdominal cavity below the digestive system

20

What do the ovaries consist of

follicles

21

follicle

a multilayered sac of cells that contains, nourishes, and protects the immature ovum

-produce estrogen

22

uterus

each fallopian tube opens into the upper end of a muscular chamber called the uterus which is the site of fetal development

23

Where is a inmature ovum drawn to when released?

is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity and is drawn by cilia into the nearby OVIDUCT, also known as a FOLLOPIAN TUBE

24

Cervix

lower narrow end of the uteris
-connects with the vaginal canal

25

Vaginal Canal

site of sperm deposition during intercourse
-also the passageway through which a baby is expelled during child birth

26

Oogenesis

-the production of female gametes

27

where does oogenesis occur?

ovarian follicles

28

What are inmature ova known as?

primary oocytes--diploid cells that form by mitosis in the ovary

29

What surrounds the oocyte cell membrane

INNER ZONA PELLUCIDA LAYER
CORONA RADIATA LAYER (OUTER LAYER)

30

what does the mature ovum contain?

cytoplasm, RNA, organelles, and nutrients needed by the developing embryo

31

What regulates the Leteinizing hormones (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (STH)?

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

32

Estrogen

-steroid hormone necessary for normal female maturation
-stimulate the development of the female reproductive tract, contribute to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and influence libido
-responsible for the thickening of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterine wall)
-secreted by the ovarian follicles and corpus Leteum

33

Progesterone

-a steroid hormone secreted by the corpus Luteum during the Leutel phase of the menstrual cycle
-stimulates the development and maintenance of the endometrium in prep for implantation

34

What are the different stages of the menstrual Cycle

-follicular phase
-ovulation
-leutal phase
-menstruation

35

Follicular Phase

-begins with the ending of the menstruation flow form the previous cycle
-FSH from the anterior pituitary promotes the development of the follicle, which grows and begins secreting estrogen

36

Ovulation

-midway through the cycle, ovulation occurs
-a mature ovarian follicle bursts and releases an ovum
-ovulation is caused by a surge in LH and is preceded by a peak in estrogen levels

37

How often do women ovulate

once every 4 weeks (unless pregnant or lactating) until menopause, which typically occurs between ages 45 and 50

38

Menopause

the ovaries become less sensitive to the hormones that stimulate follicle development (FSH and LH) and eventually atrophy
-the remaining follicles disappear
-the remaining estrogen and progesterone levels greatly decline and ovulation stops
-the profound changes in hormone levels are often accompanied by physiological and psychological changes that persist until a new balance is reached

39

Luteal Phase

after ovulation, LH maintains the remnant of the rupture follicle called the Corpus Leteum which secretes estrogen and progesterone

40

What is essential for the maintenance of the endometrium?

progesterone and estrogen