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Flashcards in Development Deck (41)
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Sources of economic growth

1. Increase in quality/quantity of Natural factors
2. Increasing quantity and quality of human and physical capital
3. Improvement in state of technology
4. Institutional factors ( eg banking system, structured legal system, good education system)


Consequences of economic growth in terms of economic development

1. Higher Incomes (dependent on how fairly income distributed)
2. Improved economic indicators of welfare (growth has lead to increased average life expectancy)
3. Higher Gvt revues received as result of more economic activity. (in better position to provide essential services but depends ion corruption and how representative gvt is of pop.)
4. Creation of inequality (growth brought by market-based initiatives often leads to increase in equality
5. Negative externalities and lack of sustainability (growth often leads to pollution, soil degradation, deforestation, reduction in biodiversity)


Common characteristics of developing countries (according to Michael P. Todaro)

1. Low standards of living characterised by low incomes, inequality, poor health and inadequate education (e.g. high levels of malnutrition, high infant mortality rates)
2. Low levels of productivity (because of poor education, poor health and lack of investment)
3. High rates of pop growth (e.g. Nigeria had 51.08 live norths per 1000 people, Japan had 7.41) leading to dependency burdens
4. High and rising level of unemployment/underemployment (usually between 10 and 20%)
5. Substantial dependence upon agricultural production and primary product exports
6. Prevalence of imperfect markets and limited information.
7. Dominance, dependence and vulnerability in international relations


Diversity among developing countries

1. Resource endowment (eg Angola rich in Oil and diamonds but developing)
2. Historical background (length and nature of colony countries were a part of varies)
3. Geographic and demographic factors (ranges form China down to Fiji)
4. Ethnic and religious breakdown
5. Structure of industry
6. Per capita income levels
7. Political structures.


International development goals

eg millennium development goals
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development.


Single indicators

i) Financial measures
-1) GDP per capita or GNI per capita
-2) GDP or GNI per capita at PPP
ii) Health measures
-1) Life expectancy at birth
-2) Infant mortality rate
iii) Education measures
-1) Adult literacy rate
-2) Net enrolment ratio in primary education


Composite Indicators



Institutional factors affecting development

1. Education
2. Health care
3. Infrastructure
4. Political stability & lack of corruption
5. Legal system
6. Financial system
7. Taxation
8. Appropriate technology
9. Empowerment of Women


How education affects development?

Improvement in education improve well-being of population.
Leads to:
-more efficient workforce
-better communication and debate on topics meaning more likely to lead to social change (improve role of women in society, improvement in health of pop.)
-requires large funding
-necessity of children to earn an income in some areas
-might be large geographical disparities (within countries) in provision of good education


How health care affects development?

Increase life expectancy


How infrastructure affects development?

Provide the structure necessary to improve communication, transportation and population size necessary to create economic growth and economic development.


How political stability and lack of corruption affects development?

More stable countries are more likely to attract FDI (which is more likely to create growth than development) and aid.
More likely to enforce law fairly: incentivising people to invest and increase consumption of products.
Citizens more likely to have an input in the running of the country
Gvt planning more long term and structured


How legal system affects development?

If a person cannot guarantee his/her ownership of a property there is no incentive to improve property or buy new ones.


How financial system affects development?

Saving is necessary to make funds available for investment. Investment allows low-income people to invest in health care, shelter, education ultimately necessary to break poverty cycle.
Micro-financing provides financial services such as small loans, savings accounts, insurance, cheque books. Leads to micro-entrepeneurships.


How taxation affects development?

Tax revenue provides government wight he means to finance necessary public services, healthcare and generally to improve the infrastructure of the country.


How use of appropriate affects development?

In most developing economies labour is in excess so technology which requires large amount of labour is quite often useful in developing countries. It also has to be durable and cheap.


How empowerment of women affects development?

-The well being of families is improved
-education of children in family group improve
-quality of workforce over time improve
-women abel to earn more money (leading to provision of products to improve living standards)
-rate of population growth often controlled.


How income distribution affects development?

High income inequality can be a barrier to growth and development because:
-low levels of savings (restricting growth)
-quite often leads to lack of pro-poor growth (political elite make policies to suit themselves)


International barriers to development

1. Over specialisation on a narrow range of products
2. Price volatility of primary products
3. Inability to access international markets
4. Long term changes in the TOT.


How is over specialisation on a narrow range of products
a barrier to development?

Many developing countries remain dependent on primary commodities to generate export revenue. This leaves them vulnerable to changes in foreign demand for the commodities. Decrease in D will lead to a decrease in prices lead to a decrease in TOT and depreciation in current account balance.
This is also heavily dependent on patterns of weather.


How is price volatility of primary products
a barrier to development?

Large fluctuations in price of primary products making export revenue and returns on investment difficult to predict. this discourages investment and makes it difficult for gvts to commit in advance to expensive development projects.


How is inability to access intl. markets
a barrier to development?

Protectionist measures may make it difficult for developing countries to exploit their comparative advantage which limits their ability to develop foreign exchange. this makes it difficult for countries with non-convertible currencies.
They are also vulnerable to dumping products they would otherwise earn export revenue on.
It also carries the problem of tariff escalation where governments impose high tariffs on processed goods leading to an inability by developing countries to move on from exporting raw materials. (e.g. tariff for unprocessed cocoa low but partial processing imposes tariff of 9% (by EU) fully processed= 15%)


How is long term changes in TOT
a barrier to development?

If commodity prices are falling over time and anny developing countries are primarily exporters of commodities then export revenue (and so ability to spend on development projects) will be decreasing over time.


Trade strategies for economic growth and economic development

1) ISI
2) Export production
3) Trade liberalisation
4) The role of the WTO
5) bilateral and regional PTAs
6) Diversification


Necessary conditions for ISI

1. gvt in developing country has to identify domestic industries whose growth it wishes to support
2. Subsidies to provide firms in these industries to increase their competitiveness until they grow in scale
3. tariffs and other protectionist measures to keep out imports.


Advantages of ISI

1. creates/ protects domestic jobs
2. protects economic sovereignty
3. protects local culture by isolating foreign influence


Disadvantages of ISI

1. Country does not enjoy benefits of comparative advantages and specialisation (production is inefficient)
2. May lead to higher rates of inflation due to AS constraints.
3. Lack of competition discourages R&D meaning dynamic inefficiency and possibly slower growth in potential growth
4. Slow economic growth may lead to lack of job creation meaning ISI only protects jobs in the short-run
5. Risks of other countries taking retaliatory protectionsit measures


Examples of ISI use

Latin america and former British colonies showed some success in the 1960s an d70s but began to fail in the 80s due to fiscal deterioration and get overspending.


Policies countries applying export promotion strategy to create development include:

Liberalising trade, liberalising capital flows, allowing exchange rate to flow, investment of provision of infrastructure, deregulation and minimal get intervention in the labour market.


Examples of where export promotion strategies have been employed

Asian tigers- Japan , Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan