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Flashcards in Development Deck (52)
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1

Protoplasmic astrocytes

Gray matter

2

Fibrous astrocytes

White matter

3

Ganglia

Collection of cell bodies

4

Projection fibers

Axons that travel up/down CNS

5

Association fibers

Axons that connect lobes (IPSILATERAL)

6

Commissural fibers

Axons that connect CONTRALATERAL lobes

7

Internuncial neurons

Interneurons - transmit AP between neurons

8

What makes up gray matter?

Collection of cell bodies, unmyelinated fibers, dendrites

9

What makes up white matter?

Myelinated fibers

10

Fasciculas

Small bundle of myelinated fibers

11

Funiculas

Several fasciculi - dorsal, lat, vent

12

Brachium

Thick bundle of funiculas connecting parts of brain

13

What happens in guillan barre?

De-myelinization

14

What ions are outside/inside cell for AP?

Outside = Na and Cl
Inside = K

15

Where are amines created?

Presynaptic cytoplasm

16

Where are peptides created?

Cell body

17

What happens at week 2?

Implantation

18

Which comes first - primary streak or groove?

Streak

19

What layer of the trilaminar disc forms the neural crest?

Ectoderm

20

What three things does the neural crest turn into?

Sensory & ANS ganglia, glands

PNS!!!!!

21

The neural tube ends up being the......

CNS

22

Dermatomes differentiate into

Subcutaneous skin

23

Myotomes differentiate into

Skeletal muscles

24

Scleratomes differentiate into

Bones

25

Endoderm turns into

Oral canal --> anus

26

Term for pair of mesoderms

Somites

27

When does the neural tube begin to fold?

Week 4

28

Epithelial layer of the central canal turns into

Ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes

29

Mantle layer differentiates into...

Gray matter

30

Marginal layer differentiates into....

White matter

31

Intermediate zone differentiates into....

Autonomic fxns

32

Which layer differentiates into dorsal/ventral plates?

Mantle

33

What causes anencephaly?

Cephalic neuropore doesn't close - brain stops developing

34

What happens in clef palate?

Lack of midline closure during 6-12 weeks

35

What happens in microcephaly?

Lack of brain development

36

4 types of spina bifida

Occulta
Meningomyelocele
Meningocele
Myeloschisis

37

Occulta

No SP - tuft of hair visible

38

Memingomyelocele

Entire SC outside of body in sac

39

Meningocele

Subarachnoid space in sac

40

Myeloschisis

Open SC on skin

41

What happens in spina bifida?

Caudal neuropore doesn't close

42

Phagiocephaly vs brachycephaly

Phagio = asymmetrical
Brachy = flat back

43

What happens in down syndrome?

Dec formation/density of dendritic spines

44

Define neutrophism

Neural maturation

45

How do changes occur in nervous system?

Interactions between cells + adaptation

46

2 fates for cells that aren't stimulated

1. Phagocytosis by microglia
2. Go dormant and get stimulated later

47

Define neural plasticity

Learning and choosing new dominant pathways

48

2 outcomes of neural injury

1. Adjacent tissue takes over
2. Development of new pathways to accomplish same result

49

When do critical periods of development occur?

First 2 months

50

_________ faciliates development

Excitation

51

When is neural maturation most rapid?

During development

52

What happens in polio?

Motor neurons are killed