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Flashcards in Development & Behavior Deck (50):
1

Define Short Stature

Past age 2 years, height that is below 2.3%

2

Goal of Short Stature

Differentiate between benign & pathological etiologies

3

Diagnostic Approach to Short Stature

Thorough H&P
Growth curve velocity
Bone age determination

4

Familial Short Stature

Bone age = child's age
Hx of parent being short
Genetic

5

Constitutional Growth Delay

Bone age

6

Most Important First Step in Newborn's Life

Bonding with caregiver
Infants has not learned they are separate from caretaker
Physical contact = protection to baby

7

Bonding/Attachment Problems

Mother ill
Single parent
No outside support for parents
Post-partum blues
Depression
Psychosis
Marital stress
Abuse
Not wanting baby
Too much "support"

8

Define Temper Tantrums

Consists of whining, screaming, crying and even throwing self to the floor

9

Why do toddlers have temper tantrums?

Frustration
Learning to communicate
Easily overwhelmed
Overtired
Want their way

10

Four Goals of Misbehavior in Toddlers

Attention
Power
Revenge
Display of inadequacy

11

Management Tips to Parents for Avoid Temper Tantrums

Avoid putting child in situations when tired or lots of stimulation
Easy choices between 2 things
Distract them
Ignore the tantrum
Warn of consequences
Tell them you love them not the behavior

12

When to Seek Help with Temper Tantrums

Parent uncomfortable with response or feelings
Parent gives in to child
Tantrums arouse bad feelings
Increasing frequency, intensity, or duration
Child hurts him/herself or others
Child is destructive
Child displays mood disorders

13

Potential Underlying Problems for Temper Tantrums

Hearing/vision problems
Chronic illness
Language delay
Learning disability

14

Tips for Temper Tantrums

Consider mental health of parent
Encourage teaching prosocial behavior/empathy
Educate about reinforcing positives

15

Chronic Aggressiveness Leads to:

Repeated failure in school
Frustrating & disappointing life
Emotional & physical pain

16

Studies Demonstrate that Abnormal Aggression Leads To:

Long-term aggressive behavior
Antisocial behavior
Early interventions key to preventing violent teens/adults

17

Prevention of Abnormal Aggression

Limit screen time
Intervene early
Consult medical & mental health professionals

18

Possible Causes of Aggressive Behavior

Poor parenting
Abuse/neglect trauma
Brain damage
Genetic abnormalities
Other health problems
Marital problems
Family instability
Observation of aggression from peers/at home

19

Strong Warning Signs of Aggressive Behavior

Cruelty to animals
Arson
Sexualized behavior
Aggressive behavior outside norm
Self-injury
Extreme non-compliance
Lack of behavior change with consequences
Evidence of psychosis
Lack of remorse or empathy

20

Possible Reasons for Biting

Relieve pain from teething
Experience sensation of biting
Oral-motor stimulation
Imitate others
Get attention
Self-defense
Communicate needs & desires
Communicate feelings

21

Biting Management

Say "No biting, biting hurts."
Comfort hurt child
Talk to biting child calmly

22

What NOT to do with a biting child

Avoid labeling as a biter
Don't bite child back
Avoid getting angry, yelling, or shaming
Avoid giving too much attention
Do not force biting and bitten child to play together
Don't punish biter

23

What is the educational theme for parents with a biter?

Consistency

24

Sleep Disturbances

Bedtime refusal or resistance
Delayed sleep onset
Prolonged night awakenings
Night terrors

25

Intrinsic Factors to Sleep Disturbances

Child's temperament
Medical issues
Circadian preference
Neurodevelopmental disabilities
Anxiety disorders

26

Screening tool for Evaluating Sleep Disturbances

BEARS
B- bedtime issues
E- excessive daytime sleepiness
A- night awakenings
R- regularity & duration of sleep
S- snoring

27

Interventions for Sleep Disturbances

Pattern
Same time
NO screen time prior
Systemic ignoring
Positive reinforcement
Parent education

28

When do Night Terrors Occur?

First half of the night

29

During a Night Terror, Child may

Sit up in bed
Scream or shout
Kick and thrash
Sweat, breathe heavily, racing pulse
Heard to awaken
Inconsolable
Stare wide-eyes
Get out of bed & run around house

30

Factors that Contribute to Sleep Terrors

Sleep deprivation
Extreme tiredness
Stress
Fever
Unfamiliar surroundings
Light or noise
Overfull bladder

31

Reasons to Evaluate Night Terrors

Happening excessively
Daytime somnolence
Hurting self/others
Child afraid to go to sleep
Last beyond teen years
Follow the same pattern

32

How to Evaluate Night Terrors

Sleep log
Sleep study
Use of benzodiazepams

33

Toilet Training

Must be ready
Neurologically mature
Regular bowel frequency
Avoid pressuring or punishments for accidents
Positive Reinforcement
Periods of regression with stressors

34

Factors for Toilet Training Resistance

Attempting training too early
Excessive parent-child conflict
Irrational fear/anxiety
Difficult temperament
Hard, painful stools
Exert independence

35

Identify Children at Risk for Dental Disease

Low SES
Prolonged breast or bottle feeding
Frequent consumption of sugary items
Prolonged use of slippy cup
Bottles at bed time
Passive smoke
Special health care needs
Insufficient fluoride exposure
Visible plaque
Enamel pits/defects
Non-nutritive sucking

36

Prevention of Dental Caries

Early brushing
Fluoride
Flossing
Dental check ups

37

What are you looking for during your visual assessment in an infant?

Cataracts
Strabismus
Amblyopia
Retinoblastoma
Glaucoma
Asymmetric pupil
Unilateral ptosis

38

Hearing Screenings in Newborns

Screen prior to discharge

39

Define IQ

Statistically derived number reflecting the ratio of age-appropriate cognitive function and the child's level of cognitive function

40

Deficits in the Development of Intellectual Disability

Language
Motor skills
Attention
Abstract reasoning
Visual-spatial skills
Academic or vocational achievement

41

Multiple Causes of Intellectual Disability

Chromosomal abnormalities
Fragile X syndrome
Monogenetic conditions
Structural CNS abnormalities
Complications of prematurity
Environmental or teratogenic causes
"Cultural-familial" mental retardation
Metabolic or endocrine causes
Unknown

42

Treatment of Intellectual Disability

Speech and language therapy
Special education support
OT or PT
Behavioral therapy or counseling

43

4 Types of Parenting

Authoritative
Authoritarian
Permissive/indulgent
Neglectful

44

Define Authoritative Parenting

Boundaries
Calm in situations
Balance

45

Define Authoritarian Parenting

Overboard
Rules/regulations
Rigid boundaries
Less flexible

46

Define Permissive Parenting

Let kids do anything
Give them what they want
Children kind of run their own world

47

Define Neglectful Parenting

Parents just don't care

48

Stressor that can alter school performance

New sibling
Divorce
Move to new location
Abuse

49

Peer Relations of Children

Age 3-4 play together
Young children allowed to socialize
Child older- peers have greater influence

50

Things that Affect a Child's Behavior and Self-Esteem

SES
Cultural beliefs
Number of siblings
Parenting
Presence of abuse
Extended family involved