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Flashcards in Immunizations Deck (62):
1

Define Herd Immunity

The ability of a community to resist epidemic disease
Unvaccinated individuals are indirectly protected by vaccinated individuals

2

2 Types of Immunization

Active
Passive

3

Define Active Immunization

Antigen administration or a polysaccharide, protein, microorganism or deactivated toxin

4

What does active immunity do?

Provides long term immunity
Meaningful immunity not achieved until 2-4 weeks after vaccination
Live are more efficacious

5

Define Passive Immunization

Administration of preformed antibody

6

What passive immunity do?

Provide immediate protection
Short term

7

Which vaccinations are live viruses?

MMR
Varicella
Zoster
Nasal-spray flu

8

Routes of Administration of Vaccinations

IM
SC

9

Common SE of Vaccinations

Fever
Local reaction

10

True Vaccination Contraindications

Previous anaphylactic reaction to vaccine
History of anaphylaxis to eggs or egg-protein
Previous anaphylactic reaction to neomycin or streptomycin
Hx of severe systemic reactions to cholera, typhoid, or plague
Immunocompromised adults due to disease or treatment
Household members of immunocompromised patient
Pregnant women

11

Recommended action for a previous anaphylactic reaction to vaccine

Avoid revaccination of the specific vaccine

12

Recommended action for history of anaphylaxis to eggs or egg-protein

Avoid MMR
Avoid influenza
Avoid yellow-fever

13

Recommended action for previous anaphylactic reaction to neomycin or streptomycin

Avoid MMR

14

Recommended action for history of severe systemic reactions

Avoid revaccination

15

Recommended action for immunocompromised adults as a result of disease or treatment

Avoid live virus vaccines

16

Recommended action for household members of immunocompromised patients

Avoid oral polio

17

Recommended action for pregnant women

Avoid live vaccines

18

Misconceptions about Vaccine Contraindications

Can't administer if MILD respiratory, intestinal, or flu-like illness
Mild/moderate local reactions
Hx of seizures
Non-vaccine associated demyelinating conditions

19

Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule

1st: at birth
2nd: 6-8 weeks
3rd: 4-18 months
4th: 6 months

20

What do we do for infants born of hepatitis B positive mothers?

Administer vaccine
Administer HBIG
Within 12 hours

21

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Alternative Names

PCV13
Prevnar13

22

What is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide & principa cause of sepsis and meningitis?

Strep pneumo

23

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Schedule

1st: 6-8 weeks
2nd: 4 months
3rd: 6 months
4th: 12-15 months

24

What was the leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottis prior to vaccine?

H. flu

25

Indications to administer HIB to children >5

Sickle cell disease
HIV/AIDS
Removal of spleen
Bone marrow transplant
Certain CA patients

26

HIB Vaccination Schedule

1st: 6-8 weeks
2nd: 4 months
3rd: 6 months
4th: 15-18 months

27

Polio Vaccination Schedule

1st: 6-8 weeks
2nd: 4 months
3rd: 6 months
4th: 4-6 years

28

What is included in the DTaP vaccination?

Diptheria
Tetanus
Acellular pertusis

29

What does the uppercase letters indicate in the Tdap vaccination?

Full-strength dose

30

DTaP Vaccination Schedule

1st: 6-8 weeks
2nd: 4 months
3rd: 6 months
4th: 15-18 months
5th: 4-6 years
Booster doses: every 10 years (possibly 5 soon)

31

How is the rotavirus vaccine administered?

Orally

32

What is the single most important viral cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide?

Rotavirus

33

What are the names of the 2 rotavirus vaccinations?

RV5 (RotaTeq)- 2mL dose/3 doses
RV1 (Rotarix)- 2mL dose/2 doses

34

Rotavirus Vaccination Schedule

1st: 6-8 weeks
2nd: 4 months
3rd: 6 months (RotaTeq-RV1)

35

What is the rotavirus vaccine associated with an increased risk of?

Intussesception

36

When is the influenza vaccination recommended?

Annually in 6 months to 18 years

37

The first year a child receives the vaccination how many doses do they need?

2 doses

38

How many influenza viruses does the influenza vaccine protect from?

3 or 4

39

How long until there is protection from the influenza vaccine?

2 weeks

40

Who is the Intranasal Live Influenza Vaccine Approved for?

Healthy patients age 2-49 years who are NOT pregnant

41

What type of vaccine is the Hepatitis A vaccine?

Inactivated whole virus vaccine

42

Hepatitis A Vaccination Schedule

1st: 12 months
2nd: 24 months

43

What type of vaccine is the MMR vaccine?

Live attenuated vaccine

44

MMR Vaccination Schedule

1st: 12-18 months
2nd: 4-6 years

45

Symptoms of Rubella (German Measles)

Rash
Arthritis (females)
Mild fever

46

What type of vaccine is the Varicella vaccine?

Live, attenuated

47

Varicella Vaccination Schedule

1st: 12-15 months
2nd: 4-6 years

48

Meningococcal Vaccination Schedule

1st: 11-12 years
2nd: 16+ years

49

HPV Vaccination Schedule

1st: 11-12 years
2nd: 2 months after that
3rd: 4+ months after that

50

What are the FDA approved combo vaccines?

DTap, DT, Tdap, Td
MMR
MMRV (Proquad)
DTaP, HepB, IPV (Pediarix)
HepA + HepB (Twinrix) 18+ y.o.
HiB + Hep B (Comvax)
DTaP + HiB (TriHIBit)

51

Pediarix (DTaP, Hep B, IPV)

Minimum age: 6 weeks
3 doses: 2, 4, & 6 months

52

What vaccines are recommended at birth?

Hepatitis B

53

What vaccines are recommended at 6-8 weeks?

Prevnar
HiB
Rotavirus
Pediarix- DTAP, Hep B, IVP

54

What vaccines are recommended at 4 months?

Prevnar
HiB
Rotavirus
Pediarix- DTaP, IVP, Hep B

55

What vaccines are recommended at 6 months?

Prevnar
HiB
Rotavirus
Influenza
Pediarix- DTaP, IVP, Hep B

56

What vaccines are recommended at 9 months?

None :)

57

What vaccines are recommended at 12 months?

Prevnar
HiB
Hep A

58

What vaccines are recommended at 15 months?

DTaP
ProQuad- MMR, varicella

59

What vaccine is recommended at 18-24 months?

Hep A

60

What vaccines are recommended at 4-6 years?

DTaP
IPV
ProQuad- MMR, varicella

61

What vaccines are recommended at 12 years?

Tdap (booster)
HPV
Meningococcal

62

What vaccine is recommended at 16-18 years?

Meningococcal (booster)