Development, CNS, PNS (Lecture #1) Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Development, CNS, PNS (Lecture #1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development, CNS, PNS (Lecture #1) Deck (40):
1

what does the embryo look like at ~3weeks after conception?

3 layered disk

2

what happens to the epiblast layer at ~3weeks after conception

develops a depression called the primitive groove

3

what happens to the primitive groove over time?

it deepens, detaches from epiblast, and closes to form neural tube

4

progression of neural tube closure

dorsal aspect of cervical region closes first
closure proceeds in both directions (rostrally and caudally)
rostral end closes at 24-26 days
caudal end closes at 26-28 days

5

when is the neural tube done forming

~4weeks after conception

6

what happens if the neural tube does not form correctly?

brain and spinal cord do not form correctly
skull and spine do not form correctly

7

what part of the neural tube becomes the brain?

rostral end

8

what part of the neural tube becomes the spinal cord?

everything that is not the rostral end

9

what happens to the rostral end of the neural tube after its closure?

starts to change shape and develops 3 major vesicles

10

3 major vesicles developed by rostral end of neural tube after closure

prosencephalon
mesencephalon
rhombencephalon

11

what does prosencephalon develop into

telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres)
diencephalon

12

what does the mesencephalon develop into?

midbrain

13

what does the rhombencephalon develop into?

metencephalon (pons & cerebellum)
mylencephalon (medulla)

14

parts of the central nervous system

cerebral hemispheres
diencephalon
midbrain
pons & cerebellum
medulla
spinal cord

15

what makes up the brainstem

midbrain
pons
medulla

16

rostral (definition)

toward the cerebral hemispheres

17

caudal (definition)

toward the sacral end of the spinal cord

18

what is the diencephalon made up of

thalamus (largest part)
hypothalamus
epithalamus

19

types of glial cells

astrocyte
oligodendroglia
microglia

20

astrocyte

structural support and metabolism in the nervous system

21

oligodendroglia

produce myelin

22

microglia

phagocytic activity

23

ependymal cells

line ventrical cavities

24

what is myelin?

lipid-substance covering essentially all axons in CNS and some in PNS

25

function of myelin

insulate axons to prevent signal loss
speed transmission

26

myelin formed by

oligodendroglia (CNS)
schwann cells (PNS)

27

do diseases affect myelin the same way in the CNS as in the PNS?

no

28

white matter

areas primarily containing myelinated axons

29

grey matter

areas primarily containing cell bodies
ALL synapses occur here

30

grey matter areas in brain

cerebral cortex
thalamus
basal ganglia

31

ventricles

study handout

32

Peripheral Nervous System contents

anything outside of brain and spinal cord
cranial nerves and ganglia
spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia
sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and ganglia
enteric nervous system (nerves in digestive system)

33

part of spinal cord that contains sensory axons

dorsal roots

34

part of spinal cord that contains motor and autonomic axons

ventral roots

35

what is the central canal filled with

fluid

36

which segments of the spinal cord have enlargements

cervical (for controlling UE muscles)
lumbosacral (for controlling LE muscles)

37

what spinal levels are associated with the sympathtic nervous system

T1-L2

38

what spinal levels are associated with parasympathetic nervous system

brainstem
S2-S4

39

fight/flight functions

pupil dilation
bronchodilation
cardiac acceleration
inhibition of digestion
piloerection
stimulation of glucose release
systemic vasoconstriction

40

rest/digest functions

pupil constriction
bronchoconstriction
cardiac deceleration
stimulation of digestion
salivation, lacrimation
intestinal vasodilation