Pathologies (Lecture #6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathologies (Lecture #6) Deck (31):
1

conditions that cause increased intracranial pressure

hemorrages
edema due to
-trauma
-lack of blood flow
-lack of oxygen
tumors
infection

2

common symptoms of increased intracranial pressure

headache
irritability followed by sleepiness
nausea and vomiting
visual loss
double vision

3

compression of midbrain reticular formation causes

decreased level of consciousness

4

swelling of CN II causes

loss of visual acuity/visual fields

5

CN IV stretched causes

loss of eye abduction

6

tx of elevated ICP

raise head of bed to 30 degrees
intubate/control breathing
mannitol
ventricular drainage
induce coma
menicraniectomy (remove part of skull)

7

types of brain herniation

subfalcine
central
transtentorial (uncal)
tonsillar

8

subfalcine herniation

cingulate gyrus herniates under falx

9

central herniation

both hemispheres displace downward thru tentorial notch
brainstem gets displaced downward
seen in hydrocephalus

10

transtentorial (uncal) herniation

medial aspect of temporal lobe is pushed downward thru tentorial notch and squishes midbrain

11

tonsillar herniation

tonsils (caudal-most part of the cerebellum) get pushed down through foramen magnum
medulla gets squished

12

signs of subfalcine herniation

personality change
akinetic mute

13

what can tonsillar herniation cause

respiratory arrest and death

14

what can central and transtentorial herniation cause

coma and death

15

types of intracranial hemmorage

epidural hematoma
subdural hematoma
subarachnoid hemorrhage
intracerebral hemorrhage

16

what typically causes epidural hematoma

blow to head (usually to temporal area)
fall
MVA

17

what happens in epidural hematoma

middle meningeal artery bleeds into epidural space

18

what typically causes acute subdural hematoma

MVA
shaken baby syndrome

19

what happens in acute/chronic subdural hematoma

tearing of bridging veins, usually comorbid with intracerebral hemorrhages

20

what typically causes chronic subdural hematoma

brain shrinks as you get older, stretching bridging veins and making them more susceptible to damage

21

what happens in subarachnoid hemorrhage

rupture of aneurysm in one of the arteries in subarachnoid space

22

what will pts with subarachnoid hemorrhage typically complain of

worst headache ever
stiff neck

23

what happens in traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage

blood vessels within cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, or cerebellum bleed esp at temporal and frontal poles
contusions
hematomas

24

signs of traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage

personality changes
executive fxn
emotional changes
memory problems

25

cause of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage

rupture of small vessels deep within the brain
typically caused my hypertension

26

diffuse axonal injury

disruption of axons deep within brain
seen as small hyperintensities in white matter of cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

27

hydrocephalus

blockage of flow of CSF
fluid accumulates in ventricles and/or subarachnoid space

28

causes of noncommunicating hydrocephalus

congenital blockage of cerebral aqueduct
blood in ventricular system
tumor compressing ventricular system
edema compressing ventricular system

29

causes of communicating hydrocephalus

meningitis damages arachnoid granulations
subarachnoid blood damages arachnoid granulations

30

meningitis

infection of pia and arachnoid layers of meninges
symptoms: headache, stiff neck, photophobia

31

encephalitis

infection of brain almost always caused by virus
symptoms: headache, seizures, confusion