Flashcards in Development of the Nervous System Deck (25):
What induces neurulation?
What is neurulation?
Formation of the neural tube from the ectoderm, following gastrulation
What is the neural plate?
Thickening of neuroectoderm
As the lateral edges of the neural plate elevate, what is the depressed mid-region called?
How do the neural folds create the neural tube?
Approach each other in the midline and fuse to produce the neural tube
What do neural tube defects result from?
Failure of the neural tube to close which can occur caudally or cranially
What does a cranial neural tube defect result in?
What does a caudal neural tube defect result in?
What is hydrocephalus?
An accumulation of CSF within the brain
What is rachischisis?
Result of failure of neural fold elevation, no neural tube formed
How can NT defects be diagnosed and prevented?
USS, raised maternal serum a-fetoprotein (embryonic proteins lead into amniotic fluid in open defects)
Folic acid given pre-conceptually and for the first trimester reduces incidence by 70%
What does the prosencephalon become?
What does the mesencephalon become?
What does the rhombencephalon become?
At 5 weeks of development, five secondary brain vesicles are formed. What are these?
Telencephalon, diencephalon (forebrain)
Metencephalon, myelencephalon (hindbrain)
What is the mature derivative of the telencephalon?
What is the mature derivative of the diencephalon?
What is the mature derivative of the mesencephalon?
What is the mature derivative of the metencephalon?
What is the mature derivative of the myelencephalon?
Is the alar plate sensory or motor?
Is the basal plate sensory or motor?
What are neural crest cells?
Cells of the lateral border of the neuroectoderm tube that become displaced and enter the mesoderm and undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition
Give some examples of neural crest derivatives
Schwann cells, glial cells, odontoblasts, C cells of thyroid gland, melanocytes, adrenal medulla