Developmental Aspect of Lung Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Aspect of Lung Disease Deck (48):
1

At what weeks of gestation does the embryonic lung development phase span?

3 - 8 weeks

2

What happens first during the embryonic phase?

Lung offshoots off the foregut

3

What germ layer does the lung grow into?

Mesoderm

4

What does the primary bronchial tube act as at this point?

A gland

5

What does the bronchial tube gland secrete into?

Amniotic fluid

6

At this point, how close do blood vessels lie to airways?

Far away

7

What stage follows the embryonic stage and how long does it last?

- Pseudo glandular - 5 - 17 weeks

8

What starts to form at the pseudo glandular phase?

- Very early lung 

- Lobes become obvious 

9

What starts to form in the bronchioles during the pseudoglandular phase?

 

Myofibrils

10

How much metabolic activity occurs during the pseudoglandular phase?

Lots

11

Describe the image relating to A) blood vessel position B) glandular aspect C) myofibrils

A) still far away from airways

B) acinar tubules widely branching

C) myofibrils forming around bronchioles 

12

What is the next phase in lung development following the pseudoglandular and how long does it last?

- Canalicular 

- 16 - 26 weeks 

13

What is the main formation during the canalicular phase?

- Squamous epithelium forms 

14

What does the formation of the squamous epithelium during the canalicular phase allow?

Gas exchange to be possible

15

What else occurs during the canalicular phase to allow gas exchange to occur?

Blood vessels move closer to the saccules

16

What phase follows the canalicular phase and how long does it last?

- Saccular

- 24 - 38 weeks 

17

What occurs during the saccular phase?

More saccules form

18

What phase begins at 36 weeks and can last 2/3 years after birth?

Alveolar phase

19

What happens to the saccules during the alveolar phase?

They turn into alveoli 

20

What fills the alveoli during gestation?

Fluid

21

What is the name given to the separation of alveoli into segments?

Alveolar Septation 

22

How many alveoli does the average human start life with?

100 - 150 million 

23

How many alveoli does the average human have after septation?

200 - 600 million

24

STUDY THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM

25

When does surfactant begin to form?

Around 24 weeks

26

STUDY THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM

27

What is tracheal/laryngeal stenosis?

Abnormal narrowing of the main airways 

28

What is pulmonary agenesis?

Failure of lung development during the embryonic stage 

29

What is tracheo-oesophageal fistula?

Where the oesophagus infringes onto the trachea and they join together

30

What is pulmonary sequestration?

When their is a functioning mass of normal lung tissue that has no link to the main airways 

31

What is cystadenamatoid malformation?

Areas of the lung that are solid or fluid filled masses that can have an effect on breathing

32

What does congenital mean?

Present at birth 

33

What does the diaphragm start off as in development?

Tissue that fuses with the abdominal wall

34

When does closure of the diaphragm occur?

18 weeks

35

What can cause a diaphragmatic hernia during development?

Pulmonary hypoplasia - the diaphragm will infinge into the space where the lung should be 

36

What does eventration mean with reference to the diaphragm?

Some areas are more dense than others

37

What functional change occurs during the first few breaths of life?

The lungs change from fluid secretion to fluid absorption to get rid of the fluid filling the airways 

38

What can result if the functionality of the lung is unable to change to fluid absorption?

Wet lung - acute respiratory distress

39

What happens to the blood vessels around the alveoli during the first few breaths

Pulmonary vasodilation 

40

What does surfactant act as?

A detergent 

41

When do type 2 pneumocytes appear during development?

12 - 14 weeks 

42

What is the name of the disease given to a surfactant deficiency?

Hyaline Membrane Disease 

43

How is hyaline membrane disease treated?

- Antenatal glucorticoids 

- Surfactant replacement 

- High conc. oxygen 

- Mechanical ventilation 

44

What are 2 examples of chronic neonatal lung diseases?

- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

- Chronic lung disease of prematurity 

45

What are the antenatal origins of adult lung disease?

- In utero exposure to nicotine 

- Nutrition

- Prematurity 

46

How does smoking affect FEV?

Decreases it 

47

If someone is born with poor lung function, what does it increase the risk of developing later in life?

COPD

48

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt12-LungDev.pdf