Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Physiology > Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (45):
1

Which two cancers does lung cancer kill more than combined?

Prostate and breast

2

What is the usual aetiology of lung canceR?

Environmental

3

What environmental factors usually are the aetiology of lung cancer?

- Smoking
- Asbestos
- Environmental radon
- Occupational exposure
- Pollution

4

What precondition can result in a lung tumour?

Pulmonary fibrosis

5

What percentage of lung cancer cases are related to smoking tobacco?

85%

6

What percentage of smokers get lung cancer?

10%

7

Which gender is more at risk of developing lung cancer from smoking?

Males

8

What percentage risk does passive smoking increase the chances of developing lung cancer by?

50-100%

9

What percentage of non-smoker lung cancer is related to passive smoking?

25%

10

What are the 2 major chemical carcinogens in cigarettes?

- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- N-nitrosamines

11

What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons said to be linked to?

Squamous small cell lung cancer

12

What are N-nitrosamines said to be linked to?

Adenocarcinomas

13

What cells are effected by tobacco smoke?

Epithelial cells

14

Where do adenocarcinomas usually form?

- Lung periphery
- Bronchioalveolar epithelial stem cells transform

15

What are the stages of invasive bronchogenic carcinoma?

- Squamous dysplasia
- Carcinoma in situ
Then invasive bronchogenic carcinoma

16

What are the stages of invasive adenocarcinoma?

- Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia
- Adenocarcinoma in situ
Then invasive carcinoma

17

What tumours can occur in the lung?

- Benign tumours
- Carcinoid tumour
- Tumours of bronchial gland (really rare)
- Lymphoma
- Sarcoma
- Secondary tumours

18

What could cause a benign growth in the lung?

Fibroma during pneumonia

19

Examples of bronchial gland tumours

- Adenoid cystic carcinoma
- Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
- Benign adenoma

20

4 main carcinomas of the lung?

- Adenocarcinoma (NSCLC)
- Squamous cell (SCLC & NSCLC)
- Small cell carcinoma (SCLC)
- Large cell carcinoma (NSCLC)

21

What are the two histological categorisations of lung cancer?

- Small cell carcinoma (SCLC)
- Non small cell carcinomas (NSCLC)

22

What is the biggest problem with regards to primary lung cancer?

They grow silently for many years and then present later when they are advanced

23

Local effects of lung cancer?

- Bronchial obstruction
- Pleural invasion
- Direct invasion
- Lymph node metastasis

24

What effect can cancer have on the pleura?

- Inflammation
- Metastasis

25

What anatomical structures can be the location of direct invasion in lung cancer?

- Chest wall
- Nerves
- Mediastinum

26

What nerve structures can be affected by invasion of lung cancer?

- Phrenic nerve
- Left recurrent laryngeal
- Brachial plexus
- Cervical sympathetic

27

What will phrenic nerve invasion result in?

Diaphragmatic paralysis

28

What will left recurrent laryngeal invasion result in?

Hoarse, bovine cough

29

What is cervical sympathetic invasion better known as?

Horner's syndrome

30

What structures can be affected by mediastinum invasion from lung cancer?

- Superior Vena Cava
- Pericardium

31

What common locations does lung cancer spread to?

- Liver
- Adrenal gland
- Bone
- Brain
- Skin

32

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the SKELETAL system?

- Clubbing
- HPOA (hypertonic pulmonary osteoarthropy)

33

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the ENDOCRINE system?

- Carcinoid syndrome
- Gynecomastia

34

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the NERVOUS system?

- Polyneuropathy
- Encephalopathy
- Cerebellar degeneration
- Myasthenia

35

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the CUTANEOUS system?

- Acanthosis nigricans
- Dermatomyositis

36

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the HEAMOTOLOGICAL system?

- Granulocytosis
- Eosinophilia

37

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the CARDIOVASCULAR system?

Thrombophlebitis migrans

38

What non metastatic paraneoplastic effects of lung cancer are apparent in the RENAL system?

Nephrotic syndrome

39

What does hypertonic pulmonary osteoarthropy cause?

Sore ankles and wrists

40

What initial tests are done in lung cancer?

- CXR
- Bronchoscopy
- Trans thoracic fine needle aspiration
- Trans thoracic core biopsy
- Pleural effusion

41

What types of bronchoscopies can be carried out in lung cancer?

- Bronchial biopsy
- Bronchial brushings and washings
- Endobronchial ultrasound guided aspiration

42

Prognoses of type 1 and 2 lung cancers with surgical intervention

- Type 1 >60% 5yrS
- Type 2 = 35% 5yrS

43

5yr survival rate for small cell lung cancer

10-25%

44

What do immune checkpoints do?

Control immune responses

45

How do tumours use immune checkpoints?

Hide from immune destruction