Developmental aspects of lung disease Flashcards Preview

Respiratory system 2017 > Developmental aspects of lung disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developmental aspects of lung disease Deck (31):
1

What is the groove that the lungs develop from?

Sulcus laryngeotrachealis or the laryngeotracheal groove

2

What buds from the laryngeotracheal groove?

Lung primordium

3

Which pharyngeal arch artery pair forms the pulmonary circulation?

6th pharyngeal arch aortic artery

4

What occurs in the canalicular stage that means the foetus is then able to live outside the uterus from around 24 weeks?

Differentiation of type II pneumocytes into flattened type I cells

Proliferation of capillaries into the mesenchyme

5

How can we measure clinically the maturity of an foetus' lungs?

Lungs are now producing a large amount of the amniotic fluid (surfactant) - the ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin in the amniotic fluid increases with foetal age

6

How long does alveolarisation continue after birth?

1 and half years after birth

7

How many alveoli are in new borns?

100-150 million

8

How many alveoli are there once you reach 3-8 years old?

200-600 million

9

Name some congenital lung diseases that result from embryonic stage defects

Tracheal or laryngeal stenosis
Pulmonary agenesis
Trachea-oesophageal fistula/atresia
Diaphragmatic abnormalities - hernia, eventration

10

When do the 4 components of the primitive diaphragm seal to form the mature diaphragm?

18 weeks

11

Name some congenital lung diseases associated tie pseudo glandular stage defects

Pulmonary sequestration (intralobular/extralobular)

Cystadenomatoid malformation

Cyst formation

12

What type of pulmonary sequestration is more common?

Intralobular, presents later on in childhood due to recurrent infections

13

How does extra lobular pulmonary sequestration usually present?

Less common, seen in neonates. Cyanosis and respiratory distress

14

Which side of the diaphragm is more likely to have a hernia?

Left - liver on right can act as a plug

15

What are the major complications associated with diaphragmatic abnormalities?

Pulmonary hypoplasia
Persistent pulmonary hypertension

16

What is the most common cause of respiratory distress in newborns?

Transient tachypnoea of the newborn

17

List some causes of respiratory distress in newborns

Transient tachypnoea of the newborn
Surfactant deficiency - HMD
Chronic neonatal lung disease

18

Describe transient tachypnoea of the newborn

Period of rapid breathing (>30-60/min) following birth, likely due to retained lung fluid which hasn't been absorbed as fast by the pulmonary lymphatic system

19

Describe some signs and symptoms of transient tachypnoea

Rapid breathing (>30-60/min)
Hyperinflated lungs (CXR)
Prominent pulmonary vascular markings (CXR)
Flattening of the diaphragm (CXR)
Fluid in horizontal fissure (CXR)

20

How do you treat transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

Supplemental oxygen
Antibiotics

21

What can induce transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

Caesarean section
Pulmonary immaturity
Surfactant deficiency

22

What are the secretory organelles in type II pneumocytes which excrete surfactant?

Lamellar bodies

23

How do you treat neonates with surfactant deficiency?

Antenatal glucocorticoids
Surfactant replacement therapy
Oxygen
CPAP
Mechanical ventilation

24

Why are glucocorticoids used in babies with surfactant deficiency?

Stimulates surfactant production

25

How long does it take for glucocorticoids to take effect?

5 days

26

When a baby is to be delivered early (e.g. emergency, pre-eclampsia), how can we prevent respiratory distress of the baby?

Glucocorticoids 5 days prior

27

Describe chronic neonatal lung disease

Development of fibrous tissue due to chronic inflammation. Caused by genetics, infection etc.

28

What are the possible long term effects of chronic neonatal lung disease?

Increased severity bronchiolitis
Causes asthma
Could lead to development of COPD later on

29

What are some antenatal causes of adult long disease?

In utero nicotine exposure
Nutrition
Sex?
Low birth weight/prematurity
Micornutrients/vitamins

30

What are some postnatal causes of adult long disease?

Infection
Growth
Environmental tobacco smoke
Environmental pollutants
Micronutrients/vitamins

31

What is the 3rd leading cause of death in the world?

COPD