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Flashcards in Developmental history Deck (21):

What important consideration should be made when looking at developmental milestones?

although there is variability in the age when particular milestones are achieved, development always takes place in the same order.


when does a child 1st smile?

6 weeks
abnormal if this not achieved by 10 wks


when does a child 1st sit unsupported?

6 months


when does a child start to develop pincer grasp?

10-12 months


what can a child achieve at 1 year?

walk unsupported
speak 2 or 3 words
tower or 2 cubes

tower or 3 or 4 cubes at 18 months, and 2 to 3 word sentences at 24 months


what must be excluded in all children with speech delay?



what developmental features are looked for, and what age are they expected to be achieved, with regards to baby positioning as a measure of gross motor development?

birth: generally flexed posture
6 weeks: pelvis flatter
4 months: baby can lift head and shoulders with weight on forearms
5 months: roll over
6 months: extend arms supporting chest off couch


when does a baby achieve good head control?

4 months
head control starts to develop at 6 wks


what are the developmental stages of sitting as a measure of gross motor skill?

6 weeks: curved back, needs support from adults
6-7 months: sits with self-propping
9 months: gets into sitting position alone


when can child walk upstairs?

usually by 18 months, can walk up stairs holding bannister and is very steady on feet
should be investigated if can't walk independently at 18 months


when can baby stand with support?

6 months
by 10 months can pull to standing and stand holding on
12 months standing and walks with 1 hand held.
15 mnths-baby walks independently and stoops to pick up objects


features assessed for in fine motor development?

grasping and reaching
building bricks
penicil skills


stages of grasping and reaching?

baby grasps very soon after birth
can hold rattle and shake purposefully by 4 mnths
5 mnths-can reach for object
6 mnths-transfer object from hand to hand
7 mnths-finger feeds


stages of manipulation?

5 mnths-whole hand grasp
9 mnths-immaturepincer grasp
10 mnths-points at bead
12 mnths-mature pincer grasp


stages of building bricks?

12 mnths-give bricks to examiner
15 mnths-builds tower or 2 cubes
18 mnths-tower of 3 to 4 cubes
3 years-tower of 9 cubes


stages of pencil skills?

18 mnths-scribbles
3 yrs-draw a circle
4 yrs-draw a cross
4 1/2 yrs-draw a square
5 yrs-draw a triangle


stages in speech and language development?

3 mnths: vocalises
8 mnths: double babble e.g. mama
12 mnths: 2 or 3 words with meaning e.g. mummy
18 mnths: 10 words
24 mnths: linking 2 words
3 yrs: full sentences, talks incessantly


when do we worry about primitive reflexes still being present?

if persistent at 6 mnths
but most should disappear well before this, and some persist-parachute reflex


stages of social development?

6 wks: smile responsively
16 wks: laughing out loud
7 mnths (to 10): stranger anxiety
9 mnths: peak a boo, waves bye bye
15 mnths: drinks from a cup
18 mnths: spoon feeding self
2 and a half yrs: toilet trained by day, but very variable age
3 yrs: dresses self (except buttons)


examples of primitive reflexes?

stepping-appears at birth, disappears by 1 mnth, baby steps up when dorsum of foot touches surface
moro-appears at birth and disappears by 3 mnths, dropping baby's head back quickly causes symmetrical abduction then adduction with arm extension
palmar grasp-appears at birth, disappears by 3 mnths, touching palm with object causes baby to grip it
plantar reflex-appears at birth, disappears at 8 mnths, pressing on ball of foot causes toes to curl
asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR)-appears at birth, disappears by 6 mnths-turing baby's head causes arm to extend on side baby facing and flexes on opp. side
parachute reflex-develops from 9 mnths and persists, elicit by pitching baby forward suddenly.


when should a child be able to draw a circle?

3 years