Diabetes Flashcards Preview

MCB 2 Block 3 > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (10):
1

General Info

Two types: Type 1 (insulin def = IDDM) and Type 2 (Insulin resistant = NIDDM)
Both have hyperglcemia
Long term = macro and microvascular damage

2

Diab Type 1

Typically associated with childhood, genetics, autoimmune attack on beta cells
No insulin secretion
Cannot stim Glut 4 (adipocytes and striated muscle)
Glucagon reigns
Hyperglycemia due to glucose having no destination leading to glucosuria and polyuria
Ketoacidosis

3

Proteins and Type 1

Decreased protein synth, increased breakdown for gluconeo, more urea cycle

4

Carbs and Type 1

Increased glycogenolysis and gluconeo since body thinks its starving

5

Fat and Type 1

Increased lipolysis and ketogenesis, decreased lipogenesis

6

Diab type 1 and Starvation

D1: glucagon at high levels, Insulin absent, hyperglycemic, ketoacidosis

Starve: Insulin low, normoglycemic, physio ketoacidosis

7

Tx of type 1

exogenous insulin at correct dose to avoid hypoglycemia (too many Glut4)
Non fast
Electrolyte infusion (to make up for water loss)

8

Diab Type 2

Due to chronic overeating, more prevalent in adults
Constant insulin due to constant food leading to insulin resistance due to desense of receptors
Hyperinsulinemia
Hyperglycemic due to low fx of insulin
Could be genetic (MODY - purely genetic, AD)

9

Tx of type 2

Lose weight
metformin - reduces hyperglycemia by inhib gluconeogen

10

Chronic effects of Diab

Hyperglycemia leads to glycation of proteins
Vessel occlusion
Glucose to sorbitol to cataracts
Retinopathy: glycated Hb stuck in retinal caps - blindness
Neuropathy: symmetrical loss of sensation
Autonomic dysfx
CVD due to increased chol
Nephropathy