Diabetes Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (16):

What is the diagnostic criteria for diabetes

1.) Two fasting blood glucose greater than 125
2.) Single glucose level above 200
3.) Increased glucose level on oral glucose tolerance testing
4.) Hemoglobin A1C > 6.5


What is the first thing you do for a patient with diabetes

Recommend weight loss and exercise with diet


What is the first line therapy for diabetes type 2

Metformin - sensitizes skeletal muscle to insulin, decreases gluconeogenesis

Side effect: Lactic acidosis


What is second line therapy for diabetes type 2

Sulfonylureas - glybiride, glipizide, glimeperide, tolbutamine - increases insulin, chance of hypoglycemia, and drives obesity


When are thiazoladinediones (glitazones) contraindicated

In CHF - promotes fluid overload, can cause hepatotoxicity, weight gain, edema, pathologic bone fractures in women


If someone is allergic to sulfa but need something that stimulates insulin release similar to sulfonylureas, what do you give them

Nateglinide and repaglinide


What do alpha-glucosidase inhibitors do for diabetes and what are their side effects

Acarbose and miglitol - block glucose absorption in bowels, causing flatus, diarrhea, and abdominal pain


What are incretins, what is their mechanism, and side effects

Exenatide (IV) and sitagliptin - increase insulin stimulation and promotes weight loss by decreasing gastric motility.- Never use as monotherapy

Side effect - Exenatide causes pancreatitis


What are the short acting, intermediate acting, and long acting insulin

Short acting - lispro, aspart, glulisine - works 3 to 4 hours
Regular insulin - works 6 to 8 hours
NPH - works 10 to 20 hours but must be dosed twice
Glargine - works for 24 hours and faster onset than NPH and more steady blood glucose levels


What is the strategy for insulin therapy for type 2 diabetics

Combine short acting insulins with glargine


What is the strategy for treating diabetes ketoacidosis

First give large volume saline and insulin therapy, then only replace potassium when levels are approaching normal. Treat underlying cause


What is the best way to test if someone is in DKA

Check serum bicarbonate level - if low it automatically indicates there is anion gap acidosis


What should all diabetics receive for health amintainence

- Pneumococcal vaccine
- Statins if LDL > 100
- ACE/ARBs if blood pressure greater than 140/90 or urine tested positive for microalbuminuri
- Aspirin if above age 30


One of the main complications of diabetes is gastroparesis. What is it, and what is its treatment

Body begins to lose ability to push bowel through because of nerve damage and cannot sense stretch which stimulates gastric motility - you get bloating, constipation, early satiety, etc.

Treatment: Metoclopromide and erythromycin


What is a complication of diabetes neuropathy

Decreased sensation to feet - causing skin ulcers - can lead to osteomyelitis

Treatment: Pregabalin, gabapentin, or tricyclic antidepressants


What are four causes of nonketotic hyperosmolar shit and what is it

1.) Sepsis
2.) Dehydration
3.) Diuretics
4.) Glucocorticoids

Causes prerenal azotemia (BUN/Creatinine risen) with hyperosmolarity (385) and blood glucose 1000